Minnesota Territorial Pioneers - Biographical Sketches of Territorial Pioneers

    As listed in the Proceedings and Report of the Annual Meetings of the Minnesota Territorial Pioneers - May 11, 1899 and 1900.  With an account of the building and dedication of the log cabin, the names of the builders, the names of the officers and members of the association and biographical sketches of territorial pioneers.  Volume II. Double Number.  St. Paul, Minn.  The Pioneer Press Company.  1901.

    These pages were scanned and may contain errors created during the transfer of the data.


Cyrus Aldrich was born in Smithfield, R. I., June 8th, 1808. His father, Dexter Aldrich, was a banker. His mother was a Miss White, descended from Thomas White, who came with the puritans from England in 163o. He worked on his father's farm until seventeen, when he took a sea voyage, and was wrecked on the of St. Thomas, W.I. In 1837 he came west, and the next year took a contract on the Illinois and Michigan canal, which terminated disastrously for him as well as for the state. In 1842 he became a member of the firm of Aldrich, Galbraith, Porter & Co., with headquarters in Galena, Ill., largely engaged in the stage business and mail contracts. In May, 1845, he was married to Clara Adelia Heaton of Indiana. The previous year he was elected to the state legislature. While a member of the legislature the old indebtedness of the state was settled; the good common sense and clear head for business and public measures of Mr. Aldrich had great influence in straightening the knotty question. He was proud of having a voice in the settlement of that dispute, as were his constituents. C. L. Wilson, in the Chicago Journal, said, "Every one of Mr. Aldrich's constituents should take him by the hand and say, 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant.' In 1847 he was elected registrar of deeds of Jo Davis county. In the spring of 1849, President Taylor appointed him receiver of public moneys in the United States land office at Dixon, ILL., where he moved and resided until sota in 1856. In 1854 he was elected chairman of the board of supervisors of Dixon and a member of the board of commissioners of Lee county. In 1852 he received the Whig nomination for congress in his district, having the well-known "Long John" Wentworth for an opponent. Although the district was hopelessly Democratic, he worked so zealously that he ran 1570 votes ahead of his party, and always said if he had had the sinews of war that "Long John" had, and not so heavy a load as General Scott to carry, he should have won the day.

He settled in Minneapolis in 1856, where he lost none of his popularity. In the spring of 1857 he was nominated to the constitutional convention and elected by a larger majority than any other candidate. A few days after the conclusion of the convention he was nominated by the Republicans as one of the three congressmen, but his party was unsuccessful. He became so widely known, however, during the canvass that at the next election for congress in 1858 he was elected by over 4,000 majority, and was re-elected in 1860 by over 10,500 majority.

When the First Minnesota Regiment of immortal fame was called into the field, he became its devoted friend. His unceasing generosity and labor shortened his life, impoverished his fortune and caused him to sacrifice some of his valuable property. President Lincoln, a warm personal friend, appointed him one of the three members of the Sioux Indemnity Commission in 1863. He was one of the incorporators of the Northern Pacific Railway, and did good service in its cause. In 1864 he was elected to the state legislature. He was appointed postmaster of Minneapolis in 1867, filling the position to the satisfaction of all.

The kindly deeds which will keep him fresh in the minds of his friends are those which he performed in the aid of our soldiers in the War of the Rebellion. He lied at his home in Minneapolis, Oct. 5, 1871, at the age of 63.

Clara Adelia Heaton Aldrich, widow of Cyrus Aldrich, was born at Silver Creek, N. Y., March 15, 1829 removing with her father's family to Laporte, Ind., in 1837. Her father, Cyrus Heaton, built the first sawmill at Silver Creek. Her mother, Betsey Spaulding Heaton, was a descendant of Edward Spaulding, who came from England in 1630 and held office in the colonies. Her grandfather Heaton served in the Revolutionary War under Stark, and died of wounds received in battle.

Mrs. Aldrich came to Minneapolis with her husband in 1856, and resides at the old homestead, corner Ninth street and First avenue south, at the present time.

Moses K. Armstrong, was born Sept. 20, 1832, in Milan, Ohio, and emigrated to Minnesota territory in 1855. He was the first surveyor of Mower County, Minn., and wrote its early history. In 1857 he was appointed a United States land surveyor in southwestern Minnesota, and in 1858 was a delegate to the first state convention, which nominated Henry Sibley for governor. He is a well known pioneer writer, and is author of the 'Early History of Dakota Territory in 1866," and of the recent illustrated work entitled, "Early Empire Builders of the Great West."

The American Biographer speaks of him as follows:

"The historical and descriptive writings of Moses K. Armstrong are a credit to American literature. His admirable pioneer sketches cover a long period of frontier life, dating back to the time when he left his native college at the age of eighteen, and turned his youthful eye to the Great West, with no fortune to guide him but the prayers and tears of a kind mother and her parting words of hope for the future.' He arrived on the banks of the Mississippi as a pioneer land surveyor, with his compass on his back, alone and friendless, before the day of western railroads. He crossed that great river and traveled on foot through northern Iowa and southern Minnesota, surveying land claims for early settlers. From here he afterwards pushed westward, with ox team, crossing Dakota to the Missouri river, where he passed several years in the Indian country, staking out land claims for the venturesome pioneers.

"He has passed through the periods of pioneer surveyor, historian, legislator, and congressman, and has stored his mind with useful knowledge. He is a pioneer who is an honor to himself and a credit to mankind."

Jared Benson was born in Worcester County, Massachusetts, November 7, 1821, died May 18, 1894, at St. Paul, Minn. He received a common school education in his native state and settled in Minnesota in 1855, locating at Anoka. His chief occupation was that of a farmer, but at various times in his life he followed other pursuits for brief intervals. In the later fifties he graded a considerable part of the roadbed of the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad. During the Civil War he had the contract for supplying the garrison at Fort Snelling with beef. Later, Mr. Benson was a director and right of way agent for the St. Paul & Pacific R. R.

As a farmer he took a genuine interest in all matters pertaining to his calling, especially in the raising of blooded stock, to which he devoted considerable money and effort. Mr. Benson took a deep interest in political affairs, and his tastes in this direction were evidenced by the fact that he held county and state offices almost continuously from his majority up to within a few years of his death. He was chairman of the Republican State Central Committee in 1858-59, clerk of the house of representatives in 1859-60, speaker of the house of representatives in 1861-62 and of the extra session of 1862 and in 1864, member of the house in 1879 and 1889, collector of internal revenue in 1872, regent of the state university in 1862.

Mr. Benson was married in 1842 to Miss Martha Taft, daughter of Arnold Taft, Esq., a prominent citizen of Worcester County, Massachusetts. Mrs. Benson still survives her husband. Besides his widow, five children, four sons and one daughter, survive Mr. Benson.

George Augusts Brackett was born Sept 16, 1836, at Calais, Maine. He arrived at St. Anthony April 30, 1857, and that summer drove the meat wagon for Stimson & Hayes, and in the winter worked on the dam of the Minneapolis Mill Company. The following spring he opened a meat market of his own.

In 1862 he was given the contract to supply beef to the troops that were serving against the Indians. During 1864 he transported and supplied the troops under General Sully and the Garrison at Fort Wadsworth with provisions.

Later he operated the Cataract Flour Mill for several years in partnership with W. S. Judd, under the firm name of Judd & Brackett.

In the summer of 1869 he was assigned the duties of supplying a party of directors of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, who were out looking over the proposed route for the railroad across the plains, which he did successfully.

From 1870 to 1875 Mr. Brackett was purchasing agent for the Northern Pacific Railway Company, and interested as a contractor in the building of the road from the St. Louis River through to Bismarck.

In 1873, in partnership with Anthony Kelly, he built the stone block at the corner of First avenue south and Second street, and the next winter engaged in packing pork.

Mr. Brackett was instrumental in organizing the fire department of Minneapolis, and in 1869 was made chief engineer, which position he held until 1872. At the first city election, in 1867, he was elected alderman from the Third ward. In 1873 Mr. Brackett was elected mayor of Minneapolis.

After his retirement from the city government he was appointed surveyor general of logs and lumber for the Second district by Governor Davis, which office Mr. Brackett held successfully for eight years.

Mr. Brackett was appointed one of the commissioners of the park board of the City of Minneapolis at its organization, which office he held for six years.

In 1890 he was president of the Minneapolis Stock Yards and Packing Company, located at New Brighton, in which he was heavily interested. The venture was not a success financially and the panic of 1893 forced Mr. Brackett to the wall, and he disposed of his property to satisfy his creditors. When the discovery of large quantities of gold was made in the Klondike region he went out there, hoping to secure another fortune for his family. His many friends will be pleased to learn that his prospects in that direction are good at the present time.

Mr. Brackett was married to Miss Anna M. Hoit, daughter of William Hoit, Aug. 19, 1858. Mrs. Brackett died in December, 1891, leaving husband, seven sons and one daughter.

Henry Clay Burbank was born in Lewis, Essex County, N. Y., May 4, 1835. Came to Minnesota June 21, 1853. Mr. Burbank first went into business in 1857, at the age of twenty-two, at the foot of Jackson street, St. Paul, in the storage, forwarding and commission business and agents for the Galena, St. Paul and Minnesota Packet Co., under the firm name of J. C. & H. C. Burbank, out of which grew a wholesale grocery business, which was continued till 1868, the firm being then J. C. & H. C. Burbank & Co.

Mr. Burbank has been engaged in business of various kinds for forty-four years, among which may be named wholesale and retail merchandising, manufacturing of flour, lumber, ready made clothing and men's furnishing goods, extensively engaged for many years in government transportation, furnishing grain and other supplies to government, government contracting; also the transportation of the Hudson Bay Company's goods in bond from St. Paul to Fort Garry, Red River settlement, now Winnipeg, Man., under contract made with Sir George Simpson, for 5oo tons per annum for five years, commencing in 1858.

The building and operating of the first steamboats on the Red River of the North, under the firm names of J. C. & H. C. Burbank and J. C. & H. C. Burbank & Co.

The manufacture and wholesaling of clothing and men's furnishing goods in St. Paul covered a period from 1875 to 1898, twenty-four years inclusive, with a factory located in the East for twelve years of the time, seven years in Philadelphia and five years in New York City, under the firm name of H. C. Burbank & Co. Was receiver of United States land office at St. Cloud, Minn., from 1865 to 1870, and a member of senate, state legislature, for the years 1874 and 1875.

Mr. Burbank was married to Mary Cannon Mitchell, daughter of the late Gen. Henry Z. Mitchell, Sept. 3, 1868, at St. Cloud, Minn.

Peter Berkey was born near Johnstown, Somerset county, Pa., Sept. 14, 1822. When a young man he worked for the Pennsylvania Canal Company. He displayed such faithful interest in his employers' affairs that he was advanced from time to time and finally became an agent for the company. Later on he ran a canal packet which made the trip from Johnstown to Pittsburgh. He was captain of the fast canal packet, which made the trip from Johnstown to Pittsburgh, one hundred miles, in twenty-four hours.

In 1853 Mr. Berkey married Miss Annie E. Porter, of Westmoreland county, Pa. In the same year he came to St. Paul and became actively engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1871 he built the St. Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls Railroad, and was its president until 1876, when the road was sold to the Chicago, St.. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railroad Company. Mr. Berkey assisted in organizing the Second National Bank of St. Paul, and was also one of the organizers of the St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company in 1865. In 1883 he organized the St. Paul National Bank, with a capital of $500,000, and was president of this bank from its organization until he resigned, in 1892.

Mr. Berkey's standing as a citizen and business man has always been above reproach. He has one son, John A. Berkey, of Little Falls, Minn.

Lardber Bostwick was born in Toronto, Ont., June 20, 1815, and was married March 6, 1843, to Eliza Kennedy. They had four children, two of whom are now living, Mrs. F. G. O'Brien of Minneapolis, and Mrs. H. A. Nott of Chicago.

Judge Bostwick died April 13, 1897, age eighty-two years, leaving a wife, the two daughters above mentioned, also a grandson, Edward J. O'Brien, a granddaughter, Mrs. W. O. Wolf, daughter of Mrs. Nott.

In 1843 judge Bostwick moved from Toronto to Chicago, and from thence to St. Anthony Falls in1850.

He served his first term as justice of the peace in 1852. He was also the fourth judge of probate of Hennepin County; also court commissioner. He served as assessor of internal revenue from 1862 to 1866.

Judge Wm. Lochren, in an article some years ago, on reminiscences of the first lawyers in Hennepin county, says- "Lardner Bostwick was a man of unusual mental power, good literary attainments, and knowledge of the law, and Withal of spotless integrity and commanding dignity in court, while very genial and companionable in his intercourse with members of the bar and others. He was a most efficient magistrate, at a time when, owing to the rough manners of a pioneer community, such a man was needed to preserve order and respect for law."

John Edson Bell was born at Brownsville, Jefferson County, N. Y., Oct. 10, 1834. He came to Minneapolis May 5, 1857, and entered the store of Amos Clark, as a clerk, on Bridge Square, corner of Hennepin avenue and First street. The next year, with Alexander Campbell of New York for a partner, he opened a general store on Bridge Square under the firm name of J. E. Bell & Co. In 186o his brother David bought Mr. Campbell's interest, and the firm name was changed to Bell Brothers, and the business continued until 1867, at which time the business was sold to J. W. Johnson and J. A. Wolverton. For the next three years. Mr. Bell was located in New York as Eastern buyer for Auerbach, Finch & Scheffer, wholesale dry goods dealers of St Paul.

In 1870 Mr. Bell returned to Minneapolis, and with E. S. Jones organized the Hennepin County Savings Bank, of which bank he was cashier until Mr. Jones' death, in 1890, since which time he has been its president. The bank is now the oldest savings bank in the state, and during its thirty-one years of existence has never passed a dividend, and has paid to its depositors over $800,000 of interest on their deposits and are now paying $45,000 of interest annually to their depositors, who are largely the laboring people of Minneapolis. During the financial panic of 1893 a few of its depositors gave notice of withdrawal of funds, but when the limit expired not a depositor wanted to withdraw funds except as in ordinary times.

Mr. Bell has been connected with the Plymouth Congregational church most of the time since its organization and was a teacher in its Sunday school for many years.

Abner Laycock Bausman was born in Etensburg, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, March 25, 1834. He was son of Adam Bausman of Pitts, Pennsylvania, who was born in Pitts, Pennsylvania, 1799. His father came from Bingen on the Rhine. His mother, Caroline Laycock, was born in 1808. She was the daughter of Gen. Abner Laycock, United States senator from Pennsylvania, during Jackson's administration. He was born in Virginia, having obtained a liberal education for that period. Dr. Bausman entered the dental profession in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He came to Minnesota in 1856, where he preempted a claim in Blue Earth County. He then returned to the east. The next spring he came up the river on the "Northern Bell," arriving at Minneapolis May 22, 1857, and opening an office on Helen street.

He at once became connected with the religious and social life of the young metropolis. He joined the First Baptist church, and was elected a trustee. He was one of the originators of the Athenaeum Library Association. Was superintendent of the first colored Sunday school in Minnesota for eight years. Was instrumental in establishing the Homeopathic Medical school at the university. He was married to Fanny R. Abraham, daughter of Hon. Jonathan P. Abraham, on the 25th of November, 1863. Four children were born, two died in infancy, the others are now living. Bertha, now Mrs. Frank H. Page, of Springfield, Mass., was born Sept. 17, 1864, and George A., of this city, was born April 23, 1874. His wife died Aug. 19, 1876.

January 16, 1879, he was married to Rebecca Webster Fenby of St Louis, daughter of the late Col. Richard Fenby, formerly of Baltimore, Md. Of this union three children were born; Richard Fenby, born Nov. 5, 1879; Alonzo Linton, born Oct. 27, 1883, and Marrian Douglas, born June 21, 1886 - all of whom are now living.

George Benz was born in Osthofen, Germany, April 23, 1838. He came to Minnesota in 1856, and located in St. Paul, and soon thereafter started in the liquor business, and now conducts the largest wholesale liquor house in the Northwest. Mr. Benz was a member of the legislature in 1873-4-5, and has also served on the city school board. Mr. Benz was married to Rosa Voehringer April 26, 1861.

Mr. Babcock was born in Otsego County, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1831, and came to Minnesota Territory Sept. 28, 1855. The following spring he was ordained a minister of the gospel in the Baptist church, and in April brought his wife to Minnesota and began pioneer work, preaching from house to house, in pre-emption shanties, and doing hand-to-hand work, largely in Winona and adjoining counties. Later on, when churches were organized, he did pastoral work, part of the time being under appointment as a missionary of the Home Mission Society of New York, but was mostly dependent upon his own resources in the local fields. Health failing, he resigned the regular pastorate, but continued to preach part of the time in destitute fields and do outside work. Now, in his seventieth year, he preaches occasionally.

Mrs. Babcock, born in Otsego County, N.Y., Sept. 16, 1833, taught one of the first public schools of Wilson, Winona County, in 1856. Although many of her pupils have passed over to the other side, she still lives to enjoy the fruit of much hard - wrought pioneer work.

Mr. and Mrs. Babcock now reside in Minneapolis, and take pleasure in contemplating the marvelous development of their adopted Minnesota.

Nathan Butler was born on a farm in the Town of Hancock, County of Hancock, State to Maine, Nov. 5, 1831. Came to Minnesota on the Steamer Northern Belle Nov. 10, 1856, and located at St Anthony Falls. Mr. Butler is a graduate of Waterville College of his native state. He is a civil engineer. He has practiced his profession and surveyed for the United States government in most parts of Minnesota. Mr. Butler has lived in Minneapolis many years, surveying and examining land. He examined in detail the entire land grant of the Great Northern Railway Co. He is now living on a farm of 600 acres, adjoining the City of Barnesville, in Clay County, in this state.

Thomas Berrisford, Sr. was born December 17, 1813, in Staffordshire, England. His father was a dairyman and carried on an extensive butter and cheese business. Thomas's education was obtained at a private school and completed at boarding school.

In this part of England a young man receiving such an education as this was considered very fortunate and expected to fill almost any calling in life.

On his return from school, Thomas assisted his father in the dairy business, and under his guidance became very proficient at this work.

After his marriage, which occurred April 24, 1837, to Miss Ann Ford of Long Acres, Staffordshire, Mr. Berrisford rented a house and a small tract of land, known as "the Moss Beds," where he continued the dairy business for years.

After this, being of an ambitious turn of mind, Mr. Berrisford rented a large tract of land called Fradswell Farm, where he engaged in stock raising and the cultivation of small grain. This undertaking, however, proved disastrous. Disease broke out amongst his stock; the fatal distemper, then prevalent, carried off sixteen of his best cows in one year. This with the failure of the grain crop so crippled Mr. Berrisford's finances that when rent day arrived the necessary funds could not be obtained, and, according to the law of the country, the bailiff took possession of the farm and all it contained, and Thomas Berrisford and his family were sent adrift on the world.

Driven frantic by the loss of everything in his possession, Mr. Berrisford determined to make a fresh start in life by going to America, where a brother, William and three sisters had gone four years previous. They had sent back glowing reports of the new world and urgent entreaties for him to follow, so on the first day of March 1856, Mr. Berrisford and family set sail on the sailing vessel Lucy Thompson for America.

They landed in New York on the 1st of April and went directly to Credit River township, Scott County, Minnesota, where his relations had settled. Here he preempted 16o acres of land and in time engaged in general merchandise and country produce business.

He was much esteemed by his neighbors, and held the office of justice of the peace and town assessor for a number of years.

Mr. Berrisford in his youth was a convert to the Methodist church and a firm believer in the teachings of John Wesley. When a young man he was known as a local preacher, and spent much time in propounding the doctrines of his church to others. He died on October 1, 1873. It has truthfully been said of him that, "with kindness to all and malice to none he never had an enemy."

Thomas Berrisford is buried at Hamilton Station, in the Protestant cemetery, by the side of his wife, who died March 13, 1866.

Of this union twelve children were born, six of whom are now living, viz.: Ann, widow of Wm. B. Bandy, who resides at Jordan, Minn.; John and Enoch F. of St. Paul, Edwin of Watson, N. D.; Sarah E., wife of Frank Coghill of Jordan, Minn., and Paul J. of St. Paul.

Thomas Berrisford was born November 15, 1840, upon a farm near, the town of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, England. He came to America with his parents in April of the year 1856 and settled on a farm in Credit River township, Scott County, Minnesota, where he remained one year; drifted to St Paul and found occupation with a Mr. Robert Baxter, who kept a small bake shop on Jackson street. Here he learned the baking trade and remained until the Indian massacre of 1862, when Mr. Baxter was killed by the Indians. This year he went to Chicago, where he worked in some of the largest bakeries of that city until the spring of 1864, leaving there to take charge of a large bakery in Memphis, Tenn. He stayed there about eight or nine months, leaving his wife and family in Chicago. On his return to Chicago he worked in the aerated bread department of the Dake bakery, but finally returned to St. Paul in 1866.

In 1867 he started in the baking business with a brother-in-law, Owen Kernan. This partnership ended the same year, Mr. Kernan withdrawing, a younger brother, E. F. Berrisford, taking his place. The firm was known as Berrisford & Brother until 1872, when they dissolved, Thomas taking the bread and retail departments and E. F. the wholesale and cracker part of the business.

In the year 1884 the business interests of the two brothers were again united and incorporated under the name of the Berrisforde Baking and Confectionery Co. In this company Thomas Berrisford was one of the board of directors, and held the offices of vice president and treasurer. In 1889 he withdrew from the firm and opened a bakery on Robert street, where he continued until his death, which occurred at Hot Springs, S.D., March 14, 1894. His remains are interred in the family lot at Calvery Cemetery.

In the year 1862, while in Chicago, Mr. Berrisford became a convert to the Catholic church, and rigidly lived up to its laws and doctrines during the remainder of his life. He was always an active worker in the St. Vincent de Paul Society and devoted a large portion of his time in caring for the sick and needy. He was president of this society at the time of his death. judge Willis, in his resolutions, aptly said: "In the performance of his duties as president of this conference he was uniformly patient, courteous, kind and efficient. Whether presiding at our sessions, Visiting the poor, or laboriously performing duties connected with the distribution of alms, Thomas Berrisford ever carried the spirit and purpose which led Ozanam to an imitation of St. Vincent de Paul.

Mr. Berrisford was twice married. His first marriage occurred in St. Paul in 1861, when he was but little past twenty years, and was to Miss Mary Kernan. She died July 29, 1882. Of this marriage there were nine children, of whom five survive, viz.- Rose Ann, now Sister Titiana of the Good Shepherd's Order of Sisterhood; Frank J., Thomas Henry of St. Paul, Mary Jame, wife of James Kane; Ellen, wife of Herman Oleson, and Agnes Catherine.

His second marriage was to Miss Elizabeth A. McManus, and to this union were born seven children, five of whom are living - Enoch, Irene, Joseph, Thomas and Mark.

John Berrisford was born at Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, England, Sept. 21, 1842. His first work was in the Uttoxeter Pot Works, where he served as an apprentice for some time; this was discontinued when the family emigrated to America.

On arriving at Credit River Township, Scott County, Minn., he went to work on a farm for a Mr. Reagen, and continued in his employ until he moved to St. Paul. His first work in this city was with a Mr. Baxter, who kept a bakery on Jackson street between Fifth and Sixth streets. Stayed here four years, then went to Mississippi to bake for a large force of men that were building levees, but the war broke out, and poor John lost all his winter's pay, and had to borrow enough money to get back to St. Paul. On his return he enlisted in Company B, Third Minnesota Infantry, acting also as baker for the regiment; was at the Battle of Murfreesboro, where Col. Lester surrendered one of our best Minnesota regiments. Being paroled as prisoner of war he was sent back to Minnesota with his regiment, and engaged in the fight against Indians who had just massacred the frontier settlers. At Woodlake on the morning of Oct 23, 1862, the Third regiment showed its mettle, made a charge on the Indians and drove them over the hills. This ended the Indian campaign of 1862. John Berrisford also served in the Twentieth New York Independent Battery, and was discharged from United States service Aug. 5, 1865.

Mr. Berrisford returned to Minnesota in 1867 and engaged in the general merchandise business at Hamilton Station, Scott County; moved to St. Paul in 1887, where he carries on a fuel business at the corner of Rondo and St. Albans streets.

Mr. Berrisford was married in Chicago March 7, 1867, to Miss Jane E. Smith of that city. She died at Hamilton Station Nov. 2, 1886. Of this union were born six children, five of whom are now living, viz. William, Anatole, Thomas, George and Margaret.

Mr. Berrisford was again married in 1887 to Miss Elizabeth Youatt of Hamilton, Minn. Of this union two children have been born - Irene and Harriet.

Enoch F. Berrisford was born May 27, 1846 upon a farm near, the town of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, England. His father left England with his family in 1856 to seek his fortune in America The main incident of this voyage across the water in the sailing vessel Lucy Thompson was the loss and recovery of the subject of this sketch. While playing with his brothers, on March 9th, Enoch was accidentally pushed overboard and remained in mid-ocean for twenty-four minutes, until rescued by the sailors of the vessel. All during his life Mr. Berrisford has celebrated the above date as his second birthday.

On the arrival of the family in America, they went directly to a farm in Credit River township, Scott County, Minn., where an uncle had preceded them.

In the spring of 1862, when the Fifth Minnesota regiment was being formed at Fort Snelling, Enoch, with two of his young friends, presented himself as ready to engage in military service, but was rejected on account of his extreme youth and frail body. He returned home dejected, but made a second unsuccessful attempt the following spring, when the First Minnesota Mounted Rangers were enlisting to go with Gen. Sibley on what was known as "Sibley's Expedition against the Indians."

His third application, however, was successful. This time, the spring of 1864 the government was hiring men to go on the Sully Expedition, and Enoch was put in charge of a six-mule team and a government supply wagon. Here was the golden opportunity the young man had been waiting for, of serving his country. The remuneration was also a great consideration, in those days $30 per month and a soldier's rations being considered big pay.

After working in the employ of the government for over two years, Mr. Berrisford came to St. Paul and was admitted as partner in the wholesale and retail baking business of his eldest brother, Thomas. On April 8, 1867, Berrisford & Bro. formally opened their doors and continued to do business until the year 1872, when the firm was dissolved, E. P. taking the wholesale part and Thomas retaining the retail department

The brothers again united their business interests in 1884 and were incorporated under the name of The Berrisfords' Baking and Confectionery Co., with E. P. Berrisford as president. This company carried on a successful business for years, and finally, in 1890, sold out to the American Biscuit and Manufacturing Co.

Mr. E. P. Berrisford was retained as manager of the Berrisford factory of the American Biscuit and Manufacturing Co. until his resignation, in 1896, when he retired from active business, and has since been devoting his time to his large real estate interests.

In the early days Mr. Berrisford served five years as a volunteer fireman, and was foreman of the old Minnehaha Engine Co. No. 2 until his resignation, August 23, 1873. In 1873 he was elected from the second ward of the city, on the Board of Education, for a term of three years.

Mr. Berrisford was married in St Paul in December, 1868, to Miss Isabella J. Young. To their union have been born six children, five of whom are now living - Ada A., Katherine M., Isabella J., Gertrude F. and Emma D., wife of Dr. Chas. W. Fogarty of Brown's Valley, Minn.

To Mr. Berrisford the change in the Northwest since he drove his six-mule team across the country in 1864, and the present time is hardly credible. The wild prairie that was once inhabited by buffalo, antelope and deer is now cultivated into fields of golden grain. Prairie dog villages are replaced by prosperous cities and towns. The nightly bark of the prairie dog has been changed to the shriek of the modern locomotive. In place of the Indian we have the white man, the author of all this progress. Verily can it be said of him, "He made the desert smile."

Paul J. Berrisford was born on a farm at Credit River Township, Scott County, Minn., Sept, 22, 1857. He is of English descent, his father having emigrated to America and settling on a farm in Minnesota in 1856. It was on this farm that Joseph spent his boyhood years, and learned the art of farming. Being of an ambitious turn of mind he left the farm in 1873 and came to St. Paul to work for his brother Thomas, who kept a bakery on Fifth street. Here he learned the baking trade, and worked at the business until 1886, when he became one of the traveling salesmen for the Berrisford Baking & Confectionery Company.

He stayed with the above firm until they sold out to the American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company, and is still on the road as one of the foremost salesmen for its successor, The National Biscuit Company.

Mr. Berrisford is a kind and genial gentleman, who so thoroughly enjoys his work that he makes friends and customers wherever he goes.

Mr. Berrisford was married in 1880 to Miss Mary Furlong, who died in 1881. His second marriage was to Miss Mary E. Degan, and took place in St. Paul Jan. 15, 1883. Of this union two children have been born - Paul Joseph and Grace.

Andrew A. Clement was born at Clairmont N. H., April 9, 1814. He came to Minnesota with his family in 1854, arriving at St. Paul on the War Eagle's last trip that year, Nov. 9. On account of low water, they were on the river five days in making the trip. Mr. Clement was a hotel keeper, having conducted the St. Lawrence Hotel at Ogdensburg N. Y., before he came to Minnesota. He was proprietor of the old Winslow House at St. Paul, in partnership with Mr. Parker, and in 1857 moved to St. Anthony and conducted the Tremont House. In 1861 had charge of the Nicollet Hotel, succeeding Eustis, Nudd & Hill.

He died Feb. 20, 1882, leaving a widow, one son and four daughters.

Emily M. Clement, widow of A. A. Clement, was born at Winchendon, Mass., April, 1819. She was married at Cambridge, Mass., in 1844 and came west with Mr. Clement in 1854, assisting her husband in conducting the various hotels they had charge of. She now resides with her son, E. B. Clement, at Minneapolis. Her daughters are Mrs. Ella Clement Donaldson, Mrs. J. F. Wilcox, Mrs. A. H. Pauly and Mrs. C. H. Moses.

John R. Carey, of Duluth, was born at Bangor, Maine, March 3d, 1830. He arrived at St. Paul May 12th, 1853, on the stern wheel steamer Clarion with a New England colony, of which he was a member. In 1859 he was appointed U. S. commissioner for the District of Minnesota by judge R. R. Nelson; which office he has held to the present time. He was judge of probate from 1859 to 1871; clerk of District Court from 1870 to 1882; register of U. S. land office from 1882 to 1885; city justice of Duluth, 1872 to 1874, and alderman of the city for one term. For the past fourteen years his occupation has been dealer in real estate.

His wife, formerly Hannah E. Terry, died April 12th, 1897, at the age of 64 years. Judge Carey is an active member of the Territorial Pioneer Association, serving last year as a member of the executive committee, and rendered good service in the building of the log cabin at the State Fair grounds.

Loren Warren Collins resides at St. Cloud; is a widower; was born in Lowell, Mass., 1838; settled upon Eden Prairie, Hennepin County, in 1854. Enlisted August 9th, 1862, in the Seventh Minnesota; served through the war; brevetted captain March 30, 1865. Was county attorney for ten years in Stearns County; member of the house of representatives in 1881-1883; one of the managers conducting the impeachment proceedings against District Court judge Cox; was appointed judge of the Seventh Judicial District, April 17, 1883; was appointed associate judge of the Supreme Court, Nov. 12, 1887, to fill a vacancy caused by the death of justice Berry; elected 1888, re-elected 1894, 1900. Upon the death of Senator Davis, in December, 1900, he was tendered an appointment to the United States Senate by Governor Lind, but declined.

Harrison J. Cobb was born at Ripley, Somerset County, Maine, May 4, 1837. He Came to St. Anthony November 9, 1854. Mr. Cobb says the stage he came on from Dubuque to St. Paul was the first one over that route. In 1863, in partnership with, Levi Leighton, he leased the meat market of Hayes & Martin, St. Anthony, and carried on that business for a few Years. Later Mr. Cobb was carrying on a crockery business in Minneapolis, and in partnership with Mr. Leighton became interested in pine lands and the lumbering business. In the summer of 1869, when Governor J. Gregory Smith, president of the Northern Pacific Railroad, with a party of directors and friends, made the trip from St. Cloud through to Fort Stevenson to examine the proposed route for the railroad, he had charge of purchasing the supplies and outfit for the party in connection with George A. Brackett. In 1870 he was given the contract to furnish the N. P. R. R. all the lumber needed for buildings and bridges from Duluth junction to Red River, and with J. B. Bassett as a partner built the first mill at Brainerd and furnished the lumber for the road to Red River, and afterwards to Bismarck. Besides supplying the lumber for the railroad, they furnished all of the lumber used for the first few years in building the city of Brainerd. Mr. Cobb was dealing in live stock for thirty-two years, being a partner with H. H. Brackett for seventeen years.

He was married in May, 1857, to Miss Mary P. Morrill, and has since made his home in Minneapolis.

Mary F. ( Morrill ) Cobb, wife of Harrison J. Cobb, was born at Cambridge, Somerset County, Maine, May 4, 1839. She came west in the spring of 1857, arriving at St. Anthony on May 4th, and the next day was married to Mr. Cobb at the house of Captain John Tapper, the ferryman and toll collector on Nicollet Island. In this particular case, however, Rev. Charles Seccomb received the toll. They were probably the first couple married on Nicollet Island, and it was in a small log house in the woods on the island that they commenced housekeeping.

John Cooper. Many of the hundreds of thousands visiting our famous state fairs for the past score of years are familiar indeed with the above half-tone of President John Cooper of the State Agricultural Society, who is also a member of the executive committee of the Minnesota Territorial Pioneers' Association. Mr. Cooper was born in the city of Philadelphia, Jan. 1, 1836, where his father, James Cooper, a house carpenter, followed the occupation of building and contracting, moving later to Bradford County, in the northern part of the State of Pennsylvania, going there as agent for Charles Barkly of London, England, owner of a large tract of agricultural and mineral lands. Here the family resided until 1856, opening up and operating a large farm of their own and developing the mineral wealth of the Barkly property. Later, when the property was sold to the Lehigh Valley Ry. Co., its present owner, the family sold their farm and came west with the tide of immigration and finally settled in the then Territory of Minnesota.

The subject of this sketch landed in St. Paul, Minn., on the steamer Northern Belle, on the 26th day of October, 1856, settled in the town of Bethel, Anoka County, where he opened up a farm of his own, and which he operated until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the Eighth Regiment Volunteer Infantry of Minnesota, upon its organization, and served with it until the close of the war. During the first year of his service, and while his regiment was scattered to the frontier posts, doing guard duty, protecting the settlers from Indian raids, he was stationed at St. Cloud in the commissary department, under special detail, to which town he returned at the close of the war, and which has ever since been his home.

For several years, while the northern part of Minnesota was being settled, he managed the Grand Central Hotel for Mr. J. E. Hayward, the proprietor, who was also a heavy operator in lumber and timber lands. While thus engaged Mr. Cooper made a very large acquaintance among the sturdy business men who have figured so extensively in the early settlement and later development of the northern part of Minnesota. It will be seen that Mr. Cooper has spent his entire early life on the frontier, with but little opportunity for a theoretical education but with abundant opportunity for that practical education that one acquires or absorbs by associations with practical men and things of everyday life, which he has by no means neglected.

While a resident of Minnesota he has been engaged in many kinds of business, such as farming, pure-bread stock breading, lumbering, dealing exclusively in real estate, farm and timber lands, and has never made a failure of anything undertaken. He has always been a public-spirited man, taking an active interest in all public affairs. He served in his home city on the board of education, as member of city council, is a director of the First National Bank of his city and has been connected with many other financial institutions. Was elected by the Legislature as a member of the board of the state reformatory, located at St. Cloud, serving eleven years, a part of the time its president. He served seven years in the U. S. Internal Revenue Service; was elected in 1888 as a presidential elector, and cast his vote for President Harrison. He is now a member of the State Forestry Board, also a member of the Farmers' Institute Board. He served nine years on the State Agricultural Board in its earlier history, during which time the present location was secured and built, and he has recently been re-elected and is serving his fourth consecutive term as president of the society. Mr. Cooper is neither a politician or an office seeker, but accepts the places tendered him, believing he owes to the state and community in which he lives the gratuitous service that the public requires of him, trusting in the rewards due for conscientious effort to faithfully perform such service rather than pay for his services.

Mr. Cooper was married June 18, 1873, to Mrs. Malinda Hayward. They have no children save two adopted sons, Charles A. and Arthur C., both grown to manhood and residents of St. Cloud.

Malinda Cooper, the subject if this sketch, was born in the town of Wesley, Maine, on the 15th day of February, A. D. 1831, and came to Minnesota in the spring of A. D. 1856,with her husband, John Hayward, settling in Stearns County, where she has ever since resided. Her husband died in 1870; and she was married to John Cooper June 18, A. b. 1873. Mrs. Cooper was one of a large family consisting of nine girls and three boys. Her father, Benj. Gray, came with his entire family to Minnesota in A. D. 1855, settling in the town of Otsego, in Wright County, and later in St. Cloud, where he died October, 1881; his wife's death following his in March, 1884.

The entire family were active members of and earnest workers in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mrs. Cooper, owing to failure in health, has for the past eight years spent much of her time in their temporary home in California, where she is at the present time.

Charles M. Cushman was born at Attleboro, Mass., July 6, 1829. He came up the river on the steamboat War Eagle, arriving at Minneapolis May 6, 1857; Mrs. Cushman on Lady Franklin the previous year, both from Dunleith.

Mr. Cushman's early years were spent on his fathers farm, working summers and going to district school in the winter. Later he attended Phillips' Academy in Andover, Mass., and Bridgewater State Normal school. Before coming west he taught school for several years in his native town.

On arriving in Minneapolis he was requested to take charge of the only school then in existence in Minneapolis, and did so, teaching one term. The school was located on Washington avenue, adjoining the St. James Hotel, in a two-story frame building.

He commenced business as a book seller and stationer in the summer of 1858 at 24 Washington avenue South, enlarging his store in 1865, and in 1886 built a new four-story brick block on the same ground. He is still in business at the old stand, the name of the firm now being Cushman & Plummer.

Mr. Cushman was married to Emeline S. Clark November 24, 1859.

Emeline S. Cushman, daughter of Charles Clark, and wife of Charles M. Cushman, was born in Corning, N. Y., June 19, 1840. She came to Minneapolis with her father's family July 15, 1856, and was married to Mr. Cushman on November 24, 1859.

Mrs. Cushman's father was one of the early contractors and builders in Minneapolis, which business he followed for many years. In 1857, he built the first Hennepin, County court house at a cost of $36,000, and the same year the residence of Dr. A. E. Ames opposite, costing $12,000, and the Cataract House, now Sixth Avenue Hotel, at a cost of $30,000. He also built the first Plymouth Church edifice and many other buildings later. At Corning, N. Y., he built the first residence erected at that place.

Mr. and Mrs. Cushman have been connected with the Plymouth Congregational Church since its organization., Mr. Cushman being a deacon for several years.

Philip Crowley, born in Loughmore Co., Tipperary, Ireland; was educated as a surveyor and followed that profession in his native country. Placed in charge of government work in 1847; was offered an important position on the first railroad built in Ireland, now the "Great Western," but declined, preferring to come to the United States, reaching New York July 3, 1849. Employed in building telegraph line from Newburg to Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Located at Pittsburgh, Pa., in the fall of 1849. Was principal of Public school there from 1850 to 1857, and kept books for a coal mining company during the same period. Was married in that city in 1852 to Catherine O'Shaughnessy, also a teacher. Came to St. Paul, with family, May 12th, 1857. Employed in this city in city engineer's department during the summer of that year. In the fall moved to Young America, Carver County, and was elected county surveyor. Located the claim on which town of Norwood now stands. Was stationed at Fort Snelling in fall and winter of 1858 on survey of Minnesota Central Railroad from Minnehaha Falls south to Westcott's Station. At solicitation of General Sibley, moved to Mendota and taught school there from 1859 to 1866, also acting as town clerk. Moved to West St. Paul in 1868, and taught school in what is now the sixth ward of St. Paul, assisted by his wife. Was elected county superintendent of schools for Dakota County, and served from 1870 to 1878, inclusive. Member of first city council of South St. Paul (which then included what is now the City of West St. Paul). Elected mayor of City of West St. Paul, receiving every vote cast at the election. His only daughter, born in Mendota, died in 1881. His wife died in 1891. Two sons, Cornelius M. and John P., reside with him.

J.C. Couper was born in Morristown, N. Y. Jan. 24, 1830. Came to Minnesota May 8, 1855. Mr. Couper was educated in the public schools and Ogdenburg Academy, and taught several terms of school. In April, 1851, went to Albian, Mich. He then crossed the plains to California, returning to Morristown in September, 1854. He was married to Miss Harriet Johnson in May, 1855, then came to Minnesota and located in Sciota, Dakota County. He was a member of the house of representatives at the regular and extra sessions in 1862. Mr., Couper enlisted in Company F, Eighth Minnesota Infantry, in August, 1862; was mustered out in August, 1865. He then, with his son, started the mercantile firm of J. C. & F. J. Couper, which firm is still doing business at Northfield. Mr. Couper was a charter member of J. L. Heywood Post No. 83. He has been commander of the post and junior vice commander of the department of Minnesota G. A. R. Mr. Couper was elected judge of the municipal court of his county in 1895. Mr. and Mrs. Couper have the following children, all residing in Minnesota: Dr. J. E. Couper, Blue Earth, George B. Couper, of Minneapolis; C. J. Couperr, F. T. Couper and Mrs. Evaline L. Miller, of Northfield. Mrs. John Miller is now president of the Wives and Daughters' Club of Minnesota Territorial Pioneer Association.

Franklin Cook was born in Campton, N. H. March 30, 1828. After completing his school education in the academies of the state, in 1852, he went to Boston, where he spent five years as civil engineer and surveyor, mostly on the Fitchburg, and Boston and Maine railroads and docks. In the spring of 1857 he came to Minnesota, first doing surveying at Lake City, arriving at St. Anthony on June 4th. Here he found plenty of work to do and decided to locate permanently. In January, 1858, he returned to New England and was married to Miss Mary Jane Rowe of Gilmanton, N. H., on January 29th. He returned to St. Anthony with his bride in April, and continued in the business of surveying, being elected city and county surveyor for several terms.

He laid out and subdivided several of the additions to the cities of St. Anthony and Minneapolis. In the summer of 1857 he was the engineer in charge of the construction of the dam of the Minneapolis Mill Co., the first one built on the west side of the falls.

In 1870, he received a commission as principal assistant engineer in charge of the United States government work for the preservation of the Falls of St Anthony, and personally superintended the construction of the "apron" at the falls, which has successfully withstood the test of floods and time. Later he took contracts for the construction of bridges and other work, and for twelve years before his death carried on quite an extensive business in quarrying stone on his farm in South Minneapolis, employing a large number of workmen.

A few months before his death his kindness of heart led him to go security and make endorsements for many thousands of dollars for a party upon what proved to be very ill-advised recommendations, resulting, finally, after his death, in the sacrifice of his entire estate.

For thirty years he was a member, and most of the time an officer, of the Free Baptist church of Minneapolis, and one of its principal supporters financially. He was a man held in the highest esteem by all who came in contact with him, either socially or in business or in his service. He died at Minneapolis, June 5, 1887, at the age of fifty-nine, leaving a widow, two sons and one daughter.

Rufus Cook was born at Campton, N. H., March 18, 1826. Mr. Cook never regretted that he was born in that part of New Hampshire, properly called "the Switzerland of America," an inspiration to the Hutchinson family as they sing: "We have came from the mountains of the old Granite State, Where thy hills are so lofty, magnificent and great"

After living twenty-two years on the old homestead, where he learned to use the scythe and hand rake in the haying season, and the sickle in harvest time, he decided on making a change in business and location. Railroads were being built in, be New England States and this new enterprise offered attractions that induced Mr. Cook to fit himself for a civil engineer. After he completed the course of studies he entered the office of Parker, Stearns & Sanborn, civil engineers, Boston, Mass., where he remained until the close of 1856. In 1857 he was city engineer of Charlestown, Mass., but during the summer relinquished the position and took Horace Greeley's advice to go west, and accordingly left the "Hub" for St. Anthony Falls with his family, where they arrived in September of that year. There were no sleeping or dining cars at that time, and it was a great relief to change from the cars at Duluth to the large steamer which landed. them at St. Paul. The stage ride of ten miles from St. Paul to St. Anthony was not without interest. At Cheever Town the celebrated Cheever Tower on which was inscribed "Pay your dime and climb," attracted the attention of all stage passengers, and near by was the first wing of the Territorial, now State, University, built the year previous, but unfinished for several years later. Mr. Cook visited the University grounds and buildings a few days ago and was impressed with the wonderful change in forty-three years, from the single small uninhabited structure of 1857 to the various palatial buildings of today where thousands of young men and women are preparing themselves for usefulness in the different occupations and professions.

Mr. Cook opened up an office in Minneapolis and his early surveys were for the Minneapolis Mill Co. on the dam then being constructed above the falls. He was afterwards employed as engineer in the construction of the canal which has since furnished the power to operate the large mills of the city for so many years. In the winter of 1858 he compiled and published the first map of Hennepin County. In 1864 he returned to Boston, where he remained until 1883, when he returned to Minneapolis again, and has since resided here.

Edwin Clark, son of Rev. John and Abigail Clark, was born in Bridgewater, N. H., February 25, 1834. His ancestors settled at Newbury, Mass., in 1630, and the family became one of the prominent and influential families of New England during the Colonial period and since. His grandfather and several members of the family served in the Revolutionary War. Mr. Clark's school education was obtained mostly in the public schools and academies of Caledonia county, Vermont, where his parents removed when he was eight years of age. His father was pastor of the Congregational church at Burke, Vt., for fourteen years.

To help pay the expenses of his education, Mr. Clark taught in the public schools of the county for two terms, when he was 17 and 18 years of age., Judge Henry Belden of Minneapolis and his three brothers being among his pupils for one term.

He learned the printing business at St Johnsbury, and in 1855 went to Boston, where he found employment in the printing and lithotypeing business. In the spring of 1857 he concluded to go west, and landed at Reed's Landing, Minnesota, May 23, 1857, arriving at St. Paul with his cousin, Franklin Cook, June 2d. Three months later, in partnership with W. A. Croffut, he purchased of Charles G. Ames The Minnesota Republican, the first Republican paper published in Minnesota, and on September 28, 1857, issued the first number of The Falls Evening News, the only daily paper in Minnesota, outside of the capital city, during the territorial period. In the fall of 1859 Mr. Croffut sold his half interest to Uriah Thomas. The same year Croffut & Clark printed the first city directory of St. Anthony and Minneapolis.

In 1860 Mr. Clark secured, with the co-operation of the Hennepin county members of the legislature, the election of Orville Brown as state printer, in which he was a silent partner. In 1863 he sold The News printing establishment to Wm. S. King, and accepted a clerkship in the house of representatives at Washington, D. C.

In 1865 he was appointed U. S. Indian agent for the Chippewa's of Minnesota and Dakota by President Lincoln, the commission being signed only two days before his assassination. The following year he was reappointed by President Johnson. Mr. Clark's Indian pay roll gave the number of the tribe at over 6,000. While Indian agent he built the agency buildings at Leech Lake, also the first steamboat on that lake, and made there the first kiln of brick burned north of Little Falls.

Mr. Clark was in business at Melrose from 1867 to 1893, having built the first dam, mill and store there in 1867, and in 1872 secured the location of the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad through his farm and laid out the village, now city, of Melrose. In 1880 he planned and secured the building of the present brick public school building at that place. From 1867 to 1873 the settlers were rapidly pushing the frontier farther to the northwest; consequently the market was good for flour, and Mr. Clark shipped thousands of barrels of flour annually in that direction, supplying for several years the military posts at Forts Abercrombie, Wadsworth, Totten, Devils Lake, and shipping both floor and seed wheat down the Red River to Fort Garry, as well as to all intermediate settlements. During those years the supply of wheat for the mill was drawn largely from the country south of Melrose for a distance of fifty miles, and within a radius of fifty miles nearly every farmer and business man was acquainted with Mr. Clark personally. After the completion, in 1872, of the St. P. & P. R. R. to Melrose, which was the terminus of the road for six years, Mr. Clark commenced shipping a portion of his flour to the Eastern and foreign markets in varying amounts, from 20,000 to 50,000 barrels annually. His cousin, W. H. Clark, was a partner with him from 1867 to 1878. Mr. Clark also carried on a large mercantile business until 1884 and gave regular employment to fifteen coopers in addition to the employees for the mill, store, engine room farm, office, etc. He built the first brick block of four stores at Melrose in 1884.

Mr. Clark is one of four members of the Veteran Volunteer Firemen's Association of Minneapolis who were members of the fire department of the city in territorial days, having been a member of Cataract Engine Company in April, 1858.

In 1894 he returned to Minneapolis, where his wife died July 8th. For the past three years he has devoted considerable time to the affairs of the Territorial Pioneers' Association, and last year was one of the promoters of the building of the log cabin of the association at the State Fair Grounds. Two years ago he proposed the plan of issuing the annual souvenir publication.

Ellen Frances Clark, wife of Edwin Clark and daughter of Morrison and Sally (James) Rowe, was born at Gilmanton, N. H., February 9, 1836. She graduated from the New Hampton. N. H., Institute in 1857, and the next year came west, teaching in the public schools of St. Anthony and Minneapolis until her marriage January 1, 1860. The Godfrey house, to which she was taken as a bride, is quite a historic dwelling, having been built by Ard Godfrey in the fall of 1848 out of the first lumber sawed in the mill built by him. above the falls, and was occupied by his family more than a year prior to the occupation of the Stevens house, and is today the oldest frame dwelling in Minneapolis. In 1851 the first post office at the falls was located in the house, and on February 14, 1851, the Catamet lodge U. D. was organized in its parlor.

During the time Mr. and Mrs. Clark occupied the house several of the printers of the city met daily at their table, Le Vinne Plummer, afterwards lieutenant colonel, and two sons of Governor Miller, one of whom was killed at Gettysburg, being members of the family for several months prior to the Civil War, and it was in this house that their eldest son, Everett, was born, June, 1862, and six months later Mr. Clark's sister, Mattie A., was married to J. R. Cummins of Eden Prairie.

Mrs. Clark was a member of the Free Baptist church and wherever her husband was located in later years, either on the Indian reservations or on what was then the northern frontier, she endeared herself to all who became acquainted with her by her kind solicitude for the welfare and happiness of all she came in contact with. For many years she was a Sunday school teacher, taking an active part in church work in addition to her family and social duties.

She died at Minneapolis July 8, 1894, at the of 55, leaving husband, two sons, Everett E. and Walter Clark, and one daughter, Mrs. Dawes How.

Clarence Palmer Carpenter was born at Eastford, Conn., Feb. 4, 1853. In the fall of 1855 his father, P. C. Carpenter, removed with his family to the territory of Minnesota, settling on a farm in what is now Lebanon, Dakota county, their house being the first frame structure in the township, the lumber for which was rafted down the river from Anoka to Minneapolis, then hauled to the farm in Dakota county. F. C. Carpenter assisted in the organization of the township, was its first clerk and afterward chairman of supervisors for many years. At the Indian outbreak he joined a company of home guards and did, service an the frontier until relieved. In 1867 the family removed to Eureka, Dakota county, where they made a fine farm home, which is now owned by the son, C. P. Carpenter. In 1839 P. C. Carpenter and wife removed to California, where he died, Oct. 18, 1891, and was buried at Grass Valley.

At sixteen C. P. Carpenter began learning the printer's trade at Spring Valley, Minn.; subsequently worked in Faribault and Twin Cities. In 1876 did first editorial work on Faribault Democrat. Winter of 1881-2, proofreader on Jacksonville, Fla., Daily Union; winter 1882-3, night editor on Fargo Daily Republican. March 6, 1884, established Dakota County Tribune at Farmington, Minn., which he sold in August, 1892. January, 1895, bought the Northfield Independent, which he has since edited and published, occupying its own building, a two-story and basement brick structure, since July 14, 1899.

Began reading law as a pastime when working at printing, and was finally admitted to the bar Sept. 29, 1890, in the district court at Hastings. Practiced at Farmington until 1892; at Lakeville 1893-4; still continues to do some legal work, though giving most of newspaper business.

In 1877 took a homestead and tree claim in Grant county, near Herman, which he cultivated for six years, having 300 acres under cultivation, working at his trade or teaching school winter.

In politics has always been somewhat independent. Was elected court commissioner of Grant county in fall of 1883. Elected assistant clerk of house of state legislature in 1887, and chief clerk of house in 1889. Was delegate at large from the state to the first People's Party national convention at Omaha. July, 1882, and one of temporary secretaries of convention. Candidate for county attorney of Dakota county on People's Party ticket, 1892 and 1894. Was appointed a member of the Northfield charter commission in 1899.

Was married July 28, 1885, to Miss Lulu M. McElrath, at Eureka, Dakota county. They have two children, a son, Park, born May 5, 1890 and a daughter, Delphine, born Sept. 2, 1896.

Mr. Carpenter is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church and has been superintendent of the Northfield M.E. Sunday school since 1897.

Jacob S. Decker was born in Flatbrookville, Sussex County, N.Y., Oct. 14, 1831. Came to Minnesota March 5, 1856. Is president Mower County Old Settlers' Association; also Austin Creamery Association, and a life deacon First Congregational church, Austin. Is a charter member of the same organization since its organization in 1857. Is justice of the peace Austin township. Mr. Decker came from New Jersey in 1855, to Iowa, and from that state to Minnesota, in 1856, by ox team. Pre-empted NW 1/4 section 1, township 102, range 18 west, April 1, 1856. Was married to Mary Ann H. Smith February, 1852.

John Dunham was born at Geneva, N. Y., Dec. 23,.1830, and came to St Anthony in May, 1857. In August he opened a retail grocery store in upper town near Dorman's bank, which business he conducted alone until 1870, when he formed a partnership with John C. Johnson to conduct a wholesale grocery business. They located on Hennepin avenue between Second street and Washington avenue, Minneapolis, where they carried on an extensive business for over twenty years. In 1892 Mr. Dunham with drew from the firm of Dunham & Johnson and formed a partnership with Wm. W. Eastman for carrying on the same business at 117-121 Second street south, where they have been located ever since, Mr. Dunham giving close attention to the management of the large business. Mr. Dunham has been continuously in the grocery business since 1837, a longer time probably than any other man in Minnesota.

In 1858 Mr. Dunham was one of the leaders in organizing the Minnesota Fire Engine Company, of which he was afterwards foreman. He was married Nov. 11, 1851, to Miss Nancy C. Lipe, who died Oct 10, 1872. On Sept 14, 1874, he was married to Mary Elizabeth Clement.

Nancy Catherine Dunham, daughter of David A. Lipe, and wife of John Dunham, was born at Stone Arabia, N. Y., September. 28, 1832. She was married to Mr. Dunham Nov. 11, 1851, and came to St. Anthony in September, 1857.

She died at Minneapolis Oct 10, 1872, leaving three sons, Frank, born at Geneva, N. Y., and Henry and Walter, born at St. Anthony. Their oldest son, Frank, died at Minneapolis in 1897.

William J. Dean was born near Port Hope, Ontario, July 19, 1843, and came to Shakopee with his parents in June, 1855. His father, Matthew Dean, there pre-empted and opened up a farm, and in the early days the large family were familiar with the privations of frontier life. School privileges at that time were very limited, and William worked on his father's farm until the call for volunteers came in 1863, when he left the harvest fields and enlisted in Company I Ninth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers. The regiment served for one year guarding the frontier, and was located most of that time at Fort Ridgely.

They were then ordered south and he served with his regiment during the whole three years, and in all the battles they were engaged in, the principal ones being at Guntown, Miss., Nashville, Tenn., and Spanish Fort, Ala., besides many skirmishes and long marches, and was honorably discharged as a non-commissioned officer at the close of the war.

After his return home he took a commercial course, and then clerked for four years in Shakopee in a general store, afterwards removing to St. Paul, where he was engaged as a bookkeeper and salesman.

In the fall of 1877 he removed to Minneapolis and engaged in the sale of farm implements, starting the first regular wholesale farm implement house in the city, in which line he has been engaged from that time to this.

His political affiliations were with the Republican party until 1886, since which time he has been a Prohibitionist, and was twice the nominee of his party for the office of governor of the state. In 1900 he ran as an independent candidate for the office of mayor of Minneapolis.

For over ten years he has been a director of the Y. M. C. A. in Minneapolis, and for the last four years has been its president. For four years he was a member of the board of corrections and charities of the City of Minneapolis. He has been an active member of the Methodist church since 1866, and has been honored with every office in the church to which a layman is eligible.

Cordelia R. Dean, daughter of Rev. Samuel W. Pond and wife of William J. Dean, was born at the mission station of Oak Grove, now Bloomington, Hennepin County, Oct. 10, 1844, at which place her parents were then missionaries to the Dakota Indians.

Later the family moved to Shakopee, where her father built, in 1847, the first frame house in the Minnesota Valley. It was near this house that a battle occurred in 1857 between the Chippewa and Sioux Indians.

She was married to Mr. Dean at Shakopee, Dec. 24, 1867.

Joseph Dean was born January 26, 1826, near the City of Enniskillen, County of Fermanagh, in the west of Ireland. His father, John Dean, emigrated while he was a child to Canada, and when ten years of age moved to Belvidere, Ill. Here be grew to manhood working on the farm and learning the carpenter's trade. In 1850 he was married to Nancy H. Stanley, and the same spring came to Minnesota, settling at Oak Grove, now Bloomington, on the Minnesota river, where he engaged in running a ferry, and two years later made a claim there. In the meantime he worked at his trade at Fort Snelling and at St. Anthony. When Hennepin County was organized in 1852 he was elected one of the first commissioners -- John Jenkins and Alexander Moore being the other two. This was the only election in the county for which the candidates were elected unanimously, each receiving seventy-one votes. He was appointed postmaster of Bloomington in January, 1854, the first post office established in Hennepin County outside of Fort Snelling, the Minneapolis post office not being established until a few days later.

Mr. Dean moved to Minneapolis in the spring of 1856, where he continued to reside until his death in 1890. He was engaged as contractor and builder, operating a sash and door factory at the Falls. In 1859 he was elected county treasurer, which office he held for two years. In 1863 he formed a partnership with the Harrison Brothers, and for fourteen years the firm did a very large and profitable business in the manufacture of lumber.

In the summer of 1877 Mr. Dean was appointed cashier of the State National Bank, which was soon after merged into the Security Bank, of which he became cashier, his former partners being the principal owners of the new bank. In 1882 he resigned, owing to ill health, and afterwards devoted most of his time to his private business affairs and in travel. Mr. Dean was a prominent member, of the Methodist Episcopal church, holding official positions in the Centenary, Hennepin Avenue and Franklin Avenue churches. Mrs. Dean died in 1872 and Mr. Dean was re-married in 1876 to Elizabeth Stevens of Belvidere, Ill., who survives him. His death occurred at Eureka Springs, Ark., May 20, 1890.

Nancy H. ( Stanley ) Dean, wife of Joseph Dean, was born near Dunkirk, New York, in 1826, and came with her father's family to Belvidere, Ill., at an early age. Here she was married to Mr. Dean in 1850, and the same year came with her husband to Minnesota. She died in Minneapolis, October, 1874, leaving four sons, Alfred J. Dean, William E. Dean, Frederick W. Dean, and George P. Dean.

Edward W. Durant was born in Roxbury, Mass., of Huguenot ancestry, April 8, 1829. Moved with his parents to Cincinnati, O., in 1838. Removed to Whiteside County, Illinois, in 1840. Was engaged in farm work until 1848. Left Illinois for Minnesota on steamboat Senator March 29, 1848. Landed at St. Paul April 8. Walked over to Stillwater and was in the employ of Hon. Jno. McKusick for a short time. Took service on board of a raft of lumber; made a trip to St Louis. The hardships and variety of this life had a charm for Durant, and he remained in the vocation of rafting, during which time he  be acquired an accurate knowledge of the St Croix and Mississippi Rivers, and became a pilot, which was his occupation for a number of years. When the old fashioned style of rafting gave way to towing with steamboats he formed a company and was for a long period engaged as owner and manager of a number of steamboats, and also largely engaged in cutting and selling logs and lumber, and distributing lumber at various points along the Mississippi River, between the St. Croix and Minneapolis, to St. Louis.

Mr. Durant was united in marriage to Miss Henrietta Pease at Albany, Ill., December 29, 1853. Their union was blessed with four children, two of whom passed away in early childhood; of the two surviving children, Henrietta, now Mrs. H. P. Barclay, resides in St. Paul. Edward W. Durant, Jr., is a resident of Stillwater, engaged in lumbering and mining.

Mr. Durant has from his young manhood been largely identified with the interests of the City of Stillwater and the state at large.

His first experience in political life was as alderman of the City of Stillwater. Subsequently served three terms as mayor. He represented the County of Washington three times as representative and two terms as state senator. During his term as state senator he received the unanimous vote of his party (Democratic) for United States Senator. In the service of his party he was selected to preside over the state convention, which gave its vote toward electing Hon. Grover Cleveland for president. Twice he presided over congressional conventions, each of which elected their nominee, viz.- Hon. Edmund Rice and Hon. J. N. Castle.

Mr. Durant was also placed in nomination by his party as their candidate for lieutenant governor. As a member of fraternal societies he has served his Masonic brethren as Grand Master of Masons for the jurisdiction of Minnesota, and is, at the time of this writing, the oldest Past Grand Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias of this jurisdiction living.

Michael Doran was born in County Meath, Ireland, on the 1st day of November, 1827. He emigrated to America in 1850, remaining in New York state until the following year, when he removed to Norwalk, Ohio. In May, 1855, he married Helen Brady of Norwalk. In September, 1856, he came to Minnesota, traveling from Norwalk to Galena, Ill., by rail and from there to St. Paul by steamboat. He took out a claim in Kilkenny, Le Sueur County, and located there with his family the following spring, following the pursuit of farming. His first wife died in 1862, leaving surviving four young children, all of whom are at present living. The oldest, James, is engaged in the banking and brokerage business at St. Paul; Mary. the wife of John C. Geraghty, ex-collector of customs for the port of St. Paul; Nellie, wife, of the present state insurance commissioner, Elmer H. Dearth, and Annie, the wife of Michael Pugh, a merchant of Le Mars, Iowa.

Mr. Doran was elected county treasurer of Le Sueur County on the Democratic ticket in 1862, serving four successive terms. In 1864 he married his present wife, Catherine O'Grady, at St. Paul, Minn. Nine children have been the fruit of this marriage, Catherine, Elizabeth, Grace, Alice, Michael, Jr., Maurice, May, William and Jack. Catherine, Elizabeth and May are dead. Michael, Jr., is the present referee in bankruptcy for the referee district of Ramsey County, Minnesota. Maurice is engaged in the banking and brokerage business at Minneapolis. The two surviving girls are unmarried, and William and Jack are still at college.

In 1870 Mr. Doran was elected state senator from Le Sueur County, and served in that capacity for several terms, the cumulative period amounting to sixteen years. In 1870 he moved from his farm in Kilkenny township to Le Sueur and entered into the banking business with George D. Snow. Upon the death of Mr. Snow, in 1873, he assumed the responsibility of the business alone until 1875, when he went into partnership with Edson R. Smith in the banking and milling business at Le Sueur. Late in the seventies he entered into partnership with Col. Morton in the banking and brokerage business in St. Paul.

He continued to live in Le Sueur until 1888, when he sold out his business interest to his partner, Mr. Smith, and moved to St. Paul, where he is now engaged in the banking and brokerage business.

Mr. Doran has always taken an active part in politics. He has been chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee on numerous occasions and was chairman of the National Democratic Committee from 1888 to 1896, when he resigned on account of differences with his party on the money question. He was a close political and personal friend of ex-President Cleveland, by whom he is given the Principal credit for procuring his third nomination.

Though now in his seventy-fourth year, Mr. Doran gives his active and personal attention to his business, and puts into it all the vigor and energy of youth.

Caleb D. Dorr was born July 9, 1824, at East Greatworks, Penobscot County, Maine. In the fall of 1847 he came west with a party consisting of Ard Godfrey, John McDonald, George Forbes, and Mr. Peak of Maine, and William A. Cheever, Mark Copewell, Joseph Fernald and Ira Burrows from Massachusetts. Mr. Dorr says the railroad from Albany to Buffalo was then a "rocky affair and they had a boisterous time."

At Buffalo they took a boat for Milwaukee, and from there to Galena by team, and from there up the river by boat, arriving at St. Anthony October 1st, 1847.

That fall he assisted Mr. Godfrey in building the temporary dam between Nicollet Island and the east side. October 20, with a crew of men, he went to Swan River, near Little Falls, for timber for the permanent dam. They agreed with Hole-in-the-Day on a big price for each tree cut, and after putting the logs in the river, they drove them to Pike Rapids, where they divided one raft into four, but finally snow came, and on November 15th they had to abandon the logs, and started for St. Anthony. When they arrived at the mouth of Rum River they were joined by Daniel Stanchfield's crew, who had been up the Rum River for the same purpose. Mr. Dorr says, "You can bet it was a wild night with rough men and whisky." In the night Stanchfield's temporary boom broke and turned their timbers loose, and what did not go over the falls was caught in the ice. On reporting the failure of the expeditions, it was decided to build the dam of hardwood timber, which was taken from Nicollet and Hennepin Islands. The planks for covering the dam were hauled from the St. Croix River during the winter. Mr. Dorr worked on the dam through the winter and put in piers for the boom. In the spring of 1848 he made two trips to Crow Wing for timber for the boom cut by Daniel Stanchfield during the winter. He was successful and had the boom completed by June 1st. On July 2d. R. P. Russell, agent for Mr. Steele, sent him with a crew to drive in the logs cut by Stanchfield on the Crow Wing River the previous winter, as the mill was about ready to start. On September 9th, 1848, he came in with most of the logs, and soon after went up Runi River about twenty miles for a small lot of logs. After getting these logs down and securing the boom and finishing the dam, on November 10th, Mr. Dorr quit work for the season.

On the 24th of November he left Fort Snelling for the State of Maine and matrimony. On arriving at the mouth of the St. Croix he was disappointed to find that no boats were running, but plenty of ice. Here he joined a party of surveyors, and with a rowboat started down the river. After a perilous journey, partly by land and partly by river, and compelled to abandon all baggage, except what he could carry on his back, he finally reached Dubuque ten days later. At Galena, with others, he took the stage, an ordinary lumber wagon, for Chicago, where they arrived after a hard trip of seven days. From Chicago he and others hired a team to take them to Niles, Michigan, from which point there was a railroad to Detroit. On arriving at Detroit he found the large boats had been laid up for the winter, but found a man going to Chatham, Canada, and took passage with him. Here he saw a large number of colored people who had come from the south via the so-called underground railroad. From there he went by stage to Niagara Falls, crossing the river below the falls in a small yawl and soon reached Buffalo, from which point he went to Boston, and then to Portland by rail. From Portland he took the stage again and reached Bangor January 5, 1849, being over forty days on the trip.

He was married to Miss Celestia A. Ricker in March, and started west again on April 9th, and arrived at St. Anthony on May 11, 1849, with his bride. They found temporary quarters with Ard Godfrey's family, who came out the month before. Captain John Rollins and family came with them. That summer Mr. Dorr built a house on Second street, between what is now First and Second avenues southeast.

In the spring of 1849 Mr. Dort purchased one of Muzzy's best shingle machines and brought it to the falls, but as there was not room for it on the dam, he sold it, and later it was sent to Fort Ripley, where it was ran by mule power and the shingles for the fort made.

Mr. Dorr engaged in logging, and lumber business, and later was land examiner, locating many thousands of acres for D. Morrison and others at the falls. He was one of the owners of the first steamboat running above the falls, the Governor Ramsey, which did a large business for several years.

In 1866 Mr. Dorr was appointed boom-master of the Mississippi and Rum River Boom Company, which position he held until 1882, and again from 1885 to 1888. Mr. Dorr was one of the large stockholders of the company.

Mr. Dorr, in partnership with E. W. Cutter, built, in 1859, for Eastman & Gibson, the Cataract mill. This was the first flour mill built on the west side of the river at the falls except the small government mill.

Celestia A. ( Ricker ) Door was born at Buckfield, Oxford County, Maine, April 20, 1828. She was married to Caleb D. Dorr March 4, 1849, and the next month accompanied her husband to St. Anthony Falls, where they have since resided. With the exception of a few years they have not kept house, preferring to board at hotels and travel or spend the winters in a warmer climate. They have no children. Mrs. Dorr's father and mother and two brothers came West in 1853, all of whom since died at St. Anthony.

John Whittemore Eastman was born in Conway, New Hampshire, October 28, 1820. He was the son of Wm. K. Eastman, of old Colonial and Revolutionary stock. He was educated at the Fryeburg (Me.) Academy and graduated at the academy at Plymouth. From 1840 to 1847 he was employed by wholesale houses in either Boston or Buenos Ayres, South America, as accountant or supercargo. In 1849 he sailed around the Horn for California, where he mined; then purchased a schooner and went into the carrying trade between Mexico and California ports; then into the cattle business, and finally into the fruit business in Southern California. In 1853 he sailed for Melbourne, Australia, with a cargo of mining implements, and then sailed for New York, taking the Nicaragua route, arriving in January, 1854. He returned to Conway, and on March 9, 1854, married Susan Maria Farrington.

Soon they started west, and settled in St. Anthony. Among Mr. Eastman's early enterprises was the establishing of the town of Merrimac, some miles below St. Paul. A company was formed, several farms purchased, and a sawmill erected, but a freshet changing the channel of the river, the scheme was abandoned.

Mr. Eastman was the first man to originate and carry out the enterprise of erecting a large flour mill at St. Anthony Falls. Associated with him were John Rollins and R. P. Upton. They built the "Minnesota Flouring Mill" on the east side of Hennepin Island, and soon W. W. Eastman became a partner. The mill had three run of stone, and manufactured one hundred barrels of flour per day, and was a success from the start. The wheat was supplied in part by the neighboring farmers, but the larger portion of it came from Iowa and Wisconsin, in boats to St. Paul, and thence to St. Anthony by teams. The market, in addition to the local consumption, was with emigrants, who took thousands of barrels in their "prairie schooners' in their westward course; also to the fur traders of the Red River Valley of the North.

In 1857 Captain Rollins retired from the firm, and in 1858 W. W. Eastman retired, and Mr. Upton sold out to William F. Cahill. The firm now became Eastman & Cahill, and the mill name changed to "Island Mills." The mill was remodeled and enlarged, having five run of stone, with a capacity of five hundred barrels a day, and employed fifteen men. This change cost $45,000. The first flour exported to eastern markets from Minnesota was made by this mill. During the War of the Rebellion many thousands of barrels were supplied to the army, the firm taking large government contracts. The annual output from the mills of Eastman & Cahill for several years averaged about thirty-two thousand barrels. Eastman & Cahill were also proprietors of large cooper shops located on the lower end of Hennepin Island, employing about one hundred men. In 1867 the Minneapolis Millers' Association was organized, and Eastman & Cahill became charter members of that body.

After retiring from the flour business in 1869 Mr. Eastman, in company with Elijah Moulton, built a large planning and re-sawing mill on Hennepin Island. In a few years he sold out his interest to Mr. Moulton. Mr. Eastman built three houses on University Avenue, near Eighth Avenue S., the first in 1854, and the other two in 1880, where he resided since coming to Minnesota. Mr. Eastman was a Royal Arch Mason, a Republican in politics, and voted on the admitting of both California and Minnesota into the Union.

During the latter years of his life Mr. Eastman became a great reader, not only of the current literature of the day, but of scientific and philosophical works. On February 19, 1899, Mr. Eastman died. In the obituary notices, the Minneapolis journal says:

"John Whittemore Eastman, a resident of Minneapolis for the past forty-five years, a pioneer flour miller and one of the leading men of the city, passed away yesterday morning at his home, 716 University Avenue S. E. Death was due to paralysis of the heart. Last December Mr. Eastman had a severe attack of the grip, from which he never completely recovered. Yesterday morning he complained of pains in the chest, and as his condition continued to grow serious, physicians were summoned. Death came soon after their arrival. The funeral will take place tomorrow afternoon, at 2 o'clock, from the residence. The Rev. M. D. Hardin, pastor of Andrew Presbyterian church, of which the deceased was a member, will conduct the services. The remains will be taken to Lakewood cemetery. The deceased leaves a wife and two sons, Dr. Arthur M. Eastman of St. Paul, and Alfred F. Eastman of Skaguay."

Mrs. John W. Eastman, whose maiden name was Susan Maria Farrington. was born in Conway, New Hampshire, April 26, 1827. She was the daughter of Jeremiah and Rachel (Horne) Farrington, and was of old Puritan stock. She was educated at the town school, the "South Conway Seminary" and Fryeburg (Me.) Academy. At the age of sixteen she began teaching school, first in the town school. then in the South Conway Seminary, continuing it for about ten years.

On March 9, 1854, she was married to John W, Eastman and moved with him to St. Anthony. In the early sixties she united with the Andrew Presbyterian Church, and for many years was one of its most active members. The entertainments, fairs and socials, the charitable and benevolent work of the church, always found in her a hearty and earnest worker. For many years she taught in the Sunday school, and many of' her scholars could bear testimony to her earnest endeavor for their welfare. On December 5, 1865, she had a great bereavement in the death of her only daughter, and it was many years before she could overcome this great sorrow.

Mrs. Eastman was quite literary in her tastes, and kept posted on the current literature of the day. But what may be written of the love and self-sacrifices of a true mother towards her children? The achievements of man may be recorded, the battles they fight and the victories they win may have a place in history; but the historian has not yet been born who can adequately express the hopes, the fears, the days of anxiety and the nights of prayer of a loving Christian mother. Such a mother was Mrs. Eastman; always full of good cheer and encouragement. Scores both young and old sought her society, and were better for the seeking.

On February 19, 1899 her husband suddenly died, and from this blow she never recovered. On June 13, 1900, she died after a short illness of pneumonia, bemoaned by a large circle of friends. As the Rev. Mr. Hardin said, "Her presence was a benediction to all who knew her, and her memory will be sacred to all."

William Wallace Eastman was born February 6, 1827, at Conway, New Hampshire. His youth and early manhood were spent in Conway. He was educated in the town school, the North Conway Academy and the South Conway Seminary. During his early years he was principally occupied working in his father's paper mill, in which he had an interest, and driving stage through the mountains.

In 1850 he went to California by way of the isthmus, but landing in San Francisco sick, he started home after two weeks, taking the same route, and after enduring many hardships, arrived safely.

He came to St. Anthony, now Minneapolis, in 1854 and became a partner in the Minnesota Flouring Mill with his brother. Here he remained a partner until 1858, when he sold out and formed a partnership with Paris Gibson, and built the first flour mill on the west side, which they named the Cataract Mills. It was a five run stone mill, and soon the "Cataract" brand of flour had a great reputation. In a few years Eastman & Gibson built the North Star Woolen Mills on the west side. It became famous for its blankets, which always took first premium wherever exhibited. The North Star Woolen Mills still continue as one of the industries of Minneapolis.

Mr. Eastman built be first paper mill on the east side, in 1860, in partnership with Mr. Charles C. Secombe. He also built the first wheat elevator in the state, in 1866, at Washington Avenue and Ninth Avenue S. Messrs. Eastman and Gibson and G. H. Eastman built the Anchor Flouring Mill, a twelve run stone mill, the largest then in the city. This was traded to ex-Governor John S. Pillsbury for his wholesale hardware stock and business. The Anchor mill is now one of the Pillsbury plant. He also engaged in the lumber business, the firm being Eastman, Bovey & Co. They became large owners of pine lands and extensive manufacturers. Of this firm his brother-in-law, Mr. John DLaittre, and later his brother, H. D. Eastman, became partners. Mr. Eastman is still a large owner of timber lands in Washington.

In 1869 Mr. Eastman originated an enterprise which promised not only to add to his own fortune, but to greatly increase the upbuilding of Minneapolis as a manufacturing center. He had been the first to demonstrate on the west side that water power could be utilized by a system of tunneling, and had made available power and land that could not be otherwise used. Mills valued at not less than a half million dollars were then being operated by his system, which included the North Star Woolen Mills. As compensation for this work, the West Side Water Power Co. gave him a perpetual lease of 250 horse-power, which was afterwards utilized for the Anchor Mill. He now proposed to develop another power that would eclipse the already famous west side.

He purchased Nicollet Island, a large tract of land lying in the river just above St. Anthony Falls, containing forty acres. He designed to have the south part covered with mills and factories. To supply water power to these, he organized the Tunnel Company, which built a tunnel about 2,500 feet long. The tunnel was 6x6 feet, and was to act as a tail race for the factories which were to be built over it. Enthusiasm for this great work began to spread, and Mr. Eastman was regarded as a public benefactor and the founder of a great manufacturing nucleus. B ut - "The best-laid schemes o' mice and men Gang aft agley, An' lea'e us nought but grief an' pain For promised joy."

On October 4, 1869, the workingmen in the tunnel struck a spring or seam in the sandstone, which opened the passage from the bottom of the river into the tunnel. Volumes of water forced the workmen to withdraw. The tunnel was converted into an underground river, and an immense maelstrom appeared not far from the west shore of Nicollet Island. It was plain that the erosion of the water would ruin the falls and totally destroy the island. A general alarm was sounded, and the entire population of the city rushed to the island. Thousands of men and scores of teams were volunteered to stop the gap. Several methods were tried, but were unsuccessful. At the time, Mr. Eastman was East, and received telegrams stating the particulars of the calamity. He replied that the only way to stop it was by means of cofferdams, and on the morning of the 6th this method was commenced. This was the beginning of a mighty struggle between the city and the United States on one side and the Mississippi river on the other. It was a struggle of ten years, such as the people of Holland wrestled with the North Sea. It was a fight for existence - a struggle in which Minneapolis fought for its future greatness. In money it cost $879,500, and in brain energy untold work. To Mr. Eastman credit may not only be given for suggesting the best method of stopping the first break, but also for conceiving the engineering idea of building an immense stone dike, which finally saved the immense water power of Minneapolis from destruction.

Hon. H. T. Welles, in his autobiography, says "The tunnel had been a blessing in disguise, and it revealed hidden dangers. Mr. W. Eastman, with the best of intentions, had been unwittingly a great benefactor to the community. Until he made that excavation no one knew of the percolating rivulets that were waiting only the slightest invitation to become gush torrents and vent the waters of the whole river through the soft sandstone under the limestone ledge which would fall into the chasrn, and instead of the falls, which would be no more, there would be miles of rapids extending to Anoka."

Mr. Eastman now turned his attention to improving Nicollet Island. It was platted, and on Eastman Avenue he built sixty fine stone tenement houses, part of which he has recently turned into flats. On the lower end of the island he built two long blocks, which he used factory for purposes. On Grove Street he built residence, one of the finest in the city, rounded by beautiful grounds. On the same street are the residences of his brothers, Hasket and George, and his sisters, Mrs. John De Laittre and Mrs. Secombe.

When the Northern Pacific Co. was begun, Mr. Eastman was one of the construction company that built the first section of that road, extending from Duluth to the Red River. This was completed in 1872.

Some years ago Mr. Eastman negotiated the sale of the East Side Water Power from Mr. Butterfield of New York to Mr. Jas. J. Hill of St. Paul, the consideration being $400,000. He received as commission for making this deal one of the best equipped sawmills on the falls, and also three mill sites with power. This power he transferred by cable to his factory buildings on the-lower end of Nicollet Island.

A few years ago Mr. Eastman formed a company that purchased the Consolidated Breweries of Minneapolis. The capitalization is $1,500,000, the breweries having an annual capacity of 500,000 barrels. He is now president of this company, and one of the largest stockholders. He organized the company that built the Syndicate block on Nicellet avenue, and had charge of its erection. It is one of the largest blocks in America, and is capitalized for $1,000,000. He is now president of this company, and also a large stockholder. He also built on his own account the Eastman block on Nicollet avenue. In recent years he has erected a large, magnificent hotel at Hot Springs, Arkansas, called the Hotel Eastman. It is one of the largest and best equipped in the country, and classed with the Ponce de Leon at Jacksonville.

Other lines of business he is at present engaged in may be mentioned: Sheep raising in Montana; the wholesale grocery house of Dunham & Eastman, one of the leading concerns of Minneapolis, and he is also general manager of the Island Power Company, with a capitalization of $140,000.

Mr. Eastman has persistently declined running for any political office, but has accepted reluctantly several. positions of trust, such as state prison commissioner, also director in several of the banks, and assignee in settling up some large estates. He has been a liberal contributor to public and private charities, but has always insisted that his name be withheld in connection with such contributions.

During his entire life he has never been blessed with vigorous health, and for many years it has been necessary to seek a residence in the south during the winter. Mr. Eastman married, in 1855, Susan Randall Lovejoy, and they have had three children, Fred W. Eastman, Ida May Eastman and Josie Belle Eastman.

Mr. and Mrs. Eastman have always borne a conspicuous part in the social life of Minneapolis, and their elegant home on Nicollet Island is often open for social entertainment. They are prominent members in the Church of the Redeemer, and liberal supporters of its religious work.

Charles E. Flandrau was born in New York City on July 15, 1828. Came to Minnesota in November, 1853, in company with Horace R. Bigelow. Judge Flandrau landed in St. Paul and formed a partnership with Mr. Bigelow under the firm name of Bigelow & Flandrau. He soon determined to settle in the village of Traverse des Sioux. He was a member of the Territorial Constitutional Convention of 1857. In 1856 he was appointed by President Pierce agent of the Sioux Indians. While in this position he took an active part in the punishment of the Indians who participated in the Spirit Lake and Springfield massacres, and was instrumental in the rescue of the captive women taken by them on that occasion.

He was appointed judge of the supreme court of the Territory of Minnesota by President Buchanan July 17, 1857. During the same year he was elected associate justice of the supreme court. Judge Flandrau was in command of the forces in defense of New Ulm in August, 1862, when the Sioux massacre was in progress, having volunteered with a company and went to the most exposed town in the region on hearing of the outbreak. In 1864 he resigned his position on the supreme bench and commenced the practice of law in Nevada, but returned to Minnesota inside of one year and formed a partnership with Judge Atwater at Minneapolis. In the same year he was elected city attorney of that city. In 1870 he moved to St. Paul. In 1867 he was Democratic candidate for governor, but was defended by William R. Marshall. Judge Flandrau has been twice married. His first wife was Miss Isabella R. Densmore of Kentucky, to whom he was married in August, 1859, Mrs. Flandrau died June 30, 1867, leaving two daughters, Mrs. Tilden R. Selmes and Mrs. F. W. M. Cutcheon. On February 28, 1871, Judge Flandrau married Mrs. Rebecca B. Riddle, daughter of Judge William McCluer of Pittsburgh. They have two sons, Charles M. and William Blair McC. Flandrau.

Loren Fletcher was born April 10, 1833, at Mount Vernon, Kennebec County, Maine. His father was a farmer and gave his children the best educational privileges that the neighborhood afforded. At the age of seventeen he undertook to learn the stonecutter's trade, but a short experience satisfied him that a mercantile business would be more agreeable to him, and he went to Bangor and obtained a situation in a shoe store, where he remained for three years. Later he decided to come west, and after spending a few months at Duluth took the steamer for St. Anthony, where he arrived in August, 1856. Here he found employment at first as clerk in a store, and later entered the service of Dorilius Morrison, who was then engaged in the lumber business, and remained with him for three years.

In 1860, he went into partnership with E. L. Allen, as dealers in dry goods, on Bridge Square, Minneapolis, and the following year, in partnership with C. M. Loring, established a general store on Nicollet avenue, opposite the old city hall, dealing largely in lumbermen's supplies, which business they conducted for fifteen years. Later they operated the Galaxy and Minnetonka Mills for several years, and also engaged in other enterprises, the firm continuing in business successfully and pleasantly for thirty- two years.

Mr. Fletcher represented his district in the state legislature in 1875, 1877, 1881 and 1883; the last two years he was speaker of the house. In 1892 he was elected to congress, and re-elected in 1894, 1896, 1898 and 1900. His record in congress is an honorable one, and his increasing majorities at each election is an evidence of his popularity at home. Mr. Fletcher is, and always has been, a Republican.

He was married to Miss Amorett J. Thomas, of Bar Harbor, Me., in 1856. Mrs. Fletcher died at Minneapolis in 1892.

Amorett J. ( Thomas ) Fletcher was born at Edom, Mount Desert Island, now Bar Harbor, in 1840. Her father, John Thomas. was a sea captain. She was married to Loren Fletcher in 1856.

She was highly educated, a most estimable lady and prominent in social circles of the city, and the gentleness of her character endeared her to those who became acquainted with her. She died at their home in Minneapolis Jan. 13, 1892.

B. F. Farmer was born in Burke, Caledonia County, Vt, July 14, 1831 the son of Hiram and Salina Snow Farmer. On his fathers side Mr. Farmer is of English descent, his grandfather, Benjamin Farmer, being a soldier in the Revolutionary War. On his mother's side the family stock is Scotch. Benjamin's father moved to Madison Lake County, Ohio, in 1833, settling on the shores of Lake Erie. Benjamin attended the district school most of the time until he was seventeen years of age. He was then apprenticed at Unionville, Ohio, to learn the blacksmith trade. After learning the trade he did the iron work on thirteen lake vessels. In the spring of 1857 came to Minnesota. He arrived in Spring Valley April 24 of that year. In a few days he had opened a shop and was installed as the village blacksmith. He was employed at his trade in 1861, when, in response to the call for volunteers, he raised a company of forty-five men, took them to Rochester, and about forty were mustered into service. Mr. Farmer was appointed United States marshal and continued in the service for some years. In 1865 he was appointed postmaster of Spring Valley and held the office for sixteen years. In 1871, in company with J. C. Easton, of La Crosse, and his brother, J. Q. Farmer, he organized the Bank of Spring Valley, was appointed its cashier and has held that position up to the present time. Mr. Farmer has been interested in everything tending to build up his town and community. Was elected mayor of Spring Valley in 1892, and during his term secured the construction of the waterworks.

Assisted in organizing the Spring Valley Electric Light and Investment Company. Was elected its president. Assisted in establishing the first creamery in Minnesota, which has been of vast benefit to the state. Mr. Farmer is a member of the Masonic Order. Has taken the thirty-second degree in Masonry. He is also a Knight Templar. Was grand commander one term. He is also a Shriner. Knight of St. George of Constantine, and Knights of Phias. His church connections are with the First Congregational Church. Is a member of the trustee board. Also president for many years of the Spring Valley high school board.

He was married in Unionville, Ohio, in 1855, to Miss Annette L. Wheeler, who bore him two children, Katie I., now Mrs. F. V. Edwards, and Nellie M., who died in infancy. In 1877 Mrs. Farmer died, and the following year Mr. Farmer married Helen E. Wheeler, sister of his first wife.

Warren H. Getchell was born Feb. 25, 1825, in the town of Bloomfield (now Skowhegan), Maine. When nine years of age the family moved "down east" to the town of Stetson, Penobscot County, Maine, and he assisted in clearing up a farm from the "primeval forest;" received a common school education and attended several terms of the Newport Academy, and taught in the district schools three winters before he was of age. In 1841the "home nest" became crowded, and his father purchased another farm in Carmel. Maine, where part of the family, including Mr. Getchell, resided. In 1846 he went to Boston, Mass., and engaged as clerk in a wholesale house until the spring of 1851, when he located in business with his brother at Ogdensburg, N. Y. Mr. Getchell was married in September 1857, to Drusella M. Pray of Livermore, Maine. In the fall of 1856 he came to Minneapolis. His wife died at Minneapolis the following winter.

Now, in his seventy-seventh year, Mr. Getchell is hale and hearty, enjoying the best of health and attending daily to his regular business duties as secretary of the Twin City Iron Works, one of the large manufacturing plants of Minneapolis.

Mr. Getchell enjoys meeting with the territorial pioneers at their gatherings, and last year, in addition to contributing his share toward the cost of the log cabin, presented the association with the large flag that was first used on Dedication Day, May 11, 1900.

August C. Giesmann was born in Weistropp, Saxony, Sept. 30, 1827. Came to Minnesota May 2, 1856, via the Mississippi river on the Steamer Ocean Wave. Was engaged in saddlery business in St Paul for a number of years. He was married to Miss Maria L. Zaspel Aug. 10, 1859. Mr. Geismann enlisted, March 13, 1865, in the First Minnesota Battery. Saw service in North Carolina, and marched with the company in the grand review in Washington, D. C. Was mustered out July 1, 1865. He bought a farm in Rosetown, Ramsey County, where he and his family have lived for the last twenty-eight years.

Mrs. Maria L. Giessmann was born Frankfort on Oder March 15, 1839. Was married to August C. Giesmann Aug. 10, 1859. See biography of August C. Giesmann.

Heman R. Gibbs was born in Chittenden County, Vermont, March 16, 1815. He left that state about 1837; spent six years in Indiana farming and school-teaching, and then six years in Grant County, Wisconsin, mining. He was married in November, 1848, to Jane De Bow, and directly after their coming to St. Paul, in the spring of 1849, he began to work on a farm which is now occupied by the buildings of the Minnesota State University. The claim which he took up in Ramsey County, early in the fall of 1849, he lived upon until his death, Nov. 19, 1891.

Jane DeBow Gibbs was born in Genessee County, N.Y., in November, 1828. In the fall of 1834, in the family of Rev. J. D. Stevens, she left home for Minnesota. Rev. Stevens was one of Dr. T. S. Williamson's mission band that spent the winter of 1834-5 at Mackinac, Mich., and arrived at Fort Snelling in May, 1835. Rev. Stevens was stationed at Lake Harriet, and the subject of this sketch attended his mission school there with Indian and part-breed children. This log school house built by Mr. Stevens, opened in 1836, was the first school house within the present limits of the state. She left Lake Harriet with the missionary in 1839, when the Indian tribes scattered and the station was abandoned. She spent two years near the present site of Wabasha. From 1841 to 1847 she lived in the western and southern portion of Wisconsin. In the latter year she moved to Elizabeth, Ill., where she was married in 1848 to Heman R. Gibbs. In company with her husband, she came to St. Paul in the spring of '49; in the fall of that year they made a claim in sections 17 and 20. Rosetown, Ramsey County, where Mrs. Gibbs still resides. She is within sight of both Minneapolis and St. Paul, but the attractions of the cities do not draw her from the homestead. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs, three of whom are living. Mrs. Gibbs believes herself to be the white person of longest residence in the State of Minnesota.

Ard Godfrey was born in Orono, on the Penobscot River, Maine, Jan. 18, 1813. His father was a millwright and the son, brought up about the saw mills, followed the same occupation. He came to St. Anthony Oct. 1, 1847, to construct. for Franklin Steele, the first dam and saw mill above the falls. Later he became a partner.

That fall a temporary dam was built between the east shore and Nicollet Island, and in October Caleb D. Dorr, with a crew of men, was sent to Swan River, near Little Falls, to get the timber for the permanent dam on Hennepin and Nicollet Islands. Daniel Stanchfield took another crew up Rum River. The mission, however, was a failure, as the logs were hung up at Pike Rapids, owing to the lateness of the season, and Stanchfield's logs did not fare any better. It was then decided to build the dam of hardwood logs cut from the lower end of Nicollet Island, and the work was carried on through the winter, and plank for the covering hauled from the St. Croix River, where a mill had been previously built by Steele and others.

Piers were built that winter for booming the logs, but no logs were received until Sept. 1, 1848, when Caleb Dorr, with a crew of log drivers, brought in the first lot of logs ever driven to the falls. The mill started up soon after, and that fall three frame houses were built, one for R. P. Russell, agent for Mr. Steele, one for Mr. Godfrey and one for Mr. Huse, and others quickly followed. In the winter Mr. Godfrey went cast for his family, who arrived at St. Anthony April 12, 1849.

Mr. Godfrey was the first postmaster at St. Anthony Falls, the office being established in the spring of 1851, with a weekly service to and from St. Paul.

Mr. Godfrey continued in business with Mr. Steele until 1852, when be left his home at St. Anthony and took a claim on the military reservation at Little Falls creek, which they occupied until it was transferred to the state by citizens of Minneapolis at a cost of $50,000 for the soldiers' home and park in 1888, after which time they made their home on Chicago avenue.

In 1853 Mr. Godfrey erected a dam on the creek below Minnehaha Falls and built a small saw mill and added buhr stones for grinding grain. Two or three years later the mill was destroyed by fire.

After Mr. Godfrey left the St. Anthony house it was successively occupied by R. P. Upton, Geo. A. Nourse, and Edwin Clark, with their families, until the fall of 1863. During all of these years many pioneers were sheltered beneath its roof. The house has been moved twice since its original location, once for opening a street to the Winslow House, and once to give room to the Union Iron Works shops. It is the oldest frame house in the city and is in a fair state of preservation. It would seem to be the proper thing for some society or association to have this house put in order and removed to one of the parks of the city for preservation.

Mr. Godfrey was married to Miss Harriet Newell Burr in 1838. He died in Minneapolis in 1895.

Harriet Newell ( Burr ) Godfrey was married to Ard Godfrey at Orono, Me., and came to St. Anthony Falls with her husband, April 12, 1849, and a few weeks later May 30 gave birth to the first white child born at St Anthony Falls, Harriet R. Godfrey.

It was in the parlor of their house that the first Masonic lodge at the Falls -- the Cataract -- was organized on the 14th day of February, 1851. A. F. Ames, William Smith, Isaac Brown. Ard Godfrey, J. H. Stevens, D. M . Coolbaugh, H. S. Atwood and William Brotuter, officers. At the first meeting Mrs. Godfrey acted as tyler, and young Abner sat on the stairs to watch for intruders. The first to become masons here were Isaac Atwater, J. G. Lennon, Anson Northrup, J. C. Gairnes, J. H. Murphy and R. W. Cummings.

The Chickering piano of Mrs. Godfrey, which was the first one brought to the Falls, has been loaned the Territorial Pioneer Association by her children, and is now at the log cabin of the association at the State Fair Grounds, where it is used by the pioneers at their meetings.

Mrs. Godfrey died at Minneapolis in 1897.

H. H. Humphry was born at Huntington, Loraine County, Ohio, September 15, 1843, When he came to Minnesota in 1855, the family came with teams from Ohio to Galena, Ill., and up the river on the steamboat Luella, locating first at Union Lakes, Rice County, the latter part of May of that year.

On August 24, 1864, he enlisted in Company D, Eleventh Minnesota Regiment, Volunteer Infantry, and was with the regiment until mustered out at Galiton, Tennessee, in 1865.

Mr. Humphry was married to Miss Rosie L. Bidwell in August, 1864. Her family came to Minnesota in 1859. She died at Minneapolis June 1, 1892. Mr. Humphry was re-married to Mrs. Louisa H. Stickney (nee Staples) February 8, 1893.

Louisa H. Humphrey, wife of H. H. Humphry, was born at Cornish, Maine, November 13, 1844, and came west with her parents in 1855, arriving at St. Anthony May 15th of that year, coming up the river on the steamer "War Eagle." She was married to Frank J. Stickney in 1865 in Anoka, Minn. He died January, 1885. Her father, William Staples died at Anoka, April, 1893. Mrs. Stickney was married to H. H. Humphry Feb. 8, 1893. Her mother, at the age of eighty, is well and active after having raised a family of twelve children, and makes her home in Minneapolis with her daughter, Mrs. Humphry.

Christopher B. Heffelfinger was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Jan. 13, 1834. He arrived in Minneapolis on the 21st day of April, 1857. April 23, 1861, he enlisted in the Union Army, and on the 29th was mustered in Company N,. First Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry for three months. He was re-mustered May 4, 1861, for three years, to take date from the original muster, April 29.

He participated in the following battles: Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; Balls Bluff, Va., Oct. 21, 1861; Siege of Yorktown, Va., April, 1862; West Point, Va., May 7; Fair Oaks, Va., May 31 and June 1; Peach Orchard, Va., June 29; Savage Station, Va., June 29; Glendale, Va., June 30; White Oak Swamp, Va., June 30; Malvern Hill, July 1; Malvern Hill, August 5; Vienna, Va., September 21 Antietam, Md., September 17; Charlestown, Va., October 16; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 16, 1862, and May 16, 1863; Hay Market, Va., June 25; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3; Briston Station, Va., October 14; Mine Run, Va., Nov. 27, 1863.

He was mustered into service as a private and was appointed sergeant the same day. Nov. 27, 1861, he was commissioned second lieutenant, and on Sept. 17, 1862, was prornoted to first lieutenant, and became captain July 3, 1863. He was mustered out of service at Fort Snelling, Minn., May 4, 1864.

In March, 1865, he was commissioned major of the First Minnesota Heavy Artillery, and served with the regiment at Chattanooga, Tenn. from April to September. when he was again mustered out at Fort Snelling in October, 1865.

Mr. Heffelfinger engaged in the retail shoe business in 1866, and in 1873 he went into the jobbing and manufacturing business, and at the present time is the president of the North Star Shoe Company.

Mr. Heffelfinger married Miss Mary Ellen Totton, daughter of John Totton, of Pittsburgh, York County, Pennsylvania, Dec. 20, 1863.

Mary Ellen Heffelfinger wife of C. B. Heffelfinger, was born at Dillsburgh, York County, Pennsylvania, Sept. 20, 1835. Her father was John Totten. She was married to Major Heffelfinger at Shippensburgh, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Dec. 20, 1863, and came to Minneapolis in 1864.

Charles W. Hackett was born in New Hampshire in 1831. He came to Minnesota in July, 1856. He settled in Lake Cityand engaged in general merchandising; was register of deeds of Wabasha County from 1860 to 1864; enlisted in 1862 and became captain of Co. C 10th Minnesota Infantry; was mustered out in 1864; moved to St. Paul in 1872 and engaged in the hardware business, of which he now conducts one of the largest wholesale houses in the Nothwest. Captain Hackett organized the Lake City Bank in 1867. He was married in 1853 to Miss Mira Holt. Mr. and Mrs. Hacket have two daughters. Mr. Hacket was a member of the State Board of Equalization from 1895 to 1897, also of the Jobbers' Union during the second year of its existence. He has been vice president of the St. Paul National Bank for many years.

George N. Hazard was born in Seaford, Del., December 5th, 1846. When two years old his parents moved to Indiana, where his father died when he was four years of age. With his mother and two sisters, they moved to Minnesota in 1856, when George was about nine or ten years old, and resided in Winona until the fall of 1857, when they moved to Taylors Falls; they lived here and in St. Croix Falls until 1862, when they removed to St. Paul. In 1861 George was bell-boy in the Sawyer House, Stillwater; in 1862 he was cabin-boy in the steamers "H. S. Allen" and "Enterprise," running from the Dalles of St. Croix to Prescott; in the fall of 1862 he went to the Merchants Hotel as bell-boy, and in 1865 was messenger boy in the House of Representatives. These years of early work in public places gave him an opportunity to form the acquaintance of many of the prominent pioneers. He went clerking on the Mississippi River steamers in 1864, and for years was in the transportation business as general railway agent In public matters he has always taken a prominent- part, was town clerk of Rosetown, Ramsey county; was county commissioner; inaugurated good roads movement; voted and worked to give the poor farm to the State Fair Association, while the new court house and city hall, new poor house, city hospital, new morgue, and other prominent improvements were inaugurated during his term as commissioner, was for years a director in the chamber of commerce, and director of the ice palace, also of the Y. M. C. A., and was elected a delegate to attend the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held in New York in May, 1888; was secretary of the Red Rock Camp Meeting Association, originator of the State Park and Dalles of St Croix idea, and has been the principal promoter in having Wisconsin and Minnesota act in the matter of securing this prominent preserve; had the first sketch of Central Park, St. Paul, made, and was successful in having the owners rearrange the land so as to donate this beautiful park to the City of St. Paul without cost to the city. Was president of the St. Paul real estate board for two terms; was a member of the St. Paul committee on the Henry Villard Last Spike Northern Pacific celebration, and was chairman of the committee to decorate the Hotel Lafayette and the dining room and banquet hall. Among the six hundred and fifty persons of prominence in attendance were General Grant, General Sherman, General Sheridan, President Arthur and Robert Lincoln.

Mr. Hazzard was married to Hannah E. Hoyt, daughter of the late B. F. Hoyt, Oct. 14, 1867. Eight children have been born to them. Six- George R., Charles H., Ocie May, William F., Spencer C. and Merrill C. - are living, the youngest twenty-one years old.

At the present time he is chairman of the committee in charge of the forty-fourth annual session of the Good Templars for the State of Minnesota, which meets in Taylors Falls, June 11-12-13, where a part of the program will be the historical gathering of all past grand officers.

Mr. Hazzard introduced the resolution that the society build the log cabin on the State Fair grounds, and was, fortunate in being the first to pay in the one dollar membership fee into this society, and has always taken an active interest in the Territorial Pioneers and other public historical matters connected with the Northwest. He has been appointed chairman of committee on reception for May 11, 1901.

Lucius Frederick Hubbard. The "History of the Great Northwest" would not be complete if it failed to give a sketch, though necessarily brief, of the eminent services performed by Lucius Frederick Hubbard, who for two successive terms filled the office of governor of Minnesota with distinguished ability. Governor Hubbard is, in the true sense of the word, a self-made man. He had only a limited educational training in youth, but the studious habits he formed early in life placed at his command an education thoroughly practical in its nature. Its benefits are shown in his after career. The commonwealth of Minnesota owes much to Governor Hubbard. No man more creditably represented it in the Civil War than he, none have performed more eminent service at the helm of state, and few have contributed more to its upbuilding. From the beginning of his residence in the state he took an active interest in public affairs and has richly merited the rewards which have been bestowed upon him. The naming of Hubbard County after this distinguished man has perpetuated his name for all time. Governor Hubbard is a native of the state of New York. He was born Jan. 26, 1836, at Troy, N. Y., and was the eldest son of Charles F. and Margaret Van Valkenberg Hubbard. He comes from old Colonial stock, and is descended, upon his father's side, from George Hubbard and Mary Bishop, who came to this country from England in the seventeenth century. On his mothers side he is descended from the Van Valkenburgs of Holland, who were among the earliest settlers in the Hudson River Valley. Lucius was but three years of age at the time of his father's death, and was placed in charge of an aunt at Chester, Vt. He remained here until he was twelve years old, when he went to Granville, N. Y., and attended the academy at that place for three years. Returning to Vermont, he began, when but fifteen years of age, an apprenticeship to the tinner's trade at Poultney. He completed his apprenticeship at Salem, N. Y., in 1854.

Believing that in the west he would find better opportunities to succeed in life, he came to Chicago from Salem and worked at his trade in that city. For the three years following he devoted all his spare time to improving his education. Possessed of literary tastes, the systematic and careful study he pursued was a source of pleasure to him, and he thus acquired, by his studious habits, an excellent practical education. In July, 1857, Mr. Hubbard came to Minnesota and located at Red Wing. The first business venture he undertook was typical of the bold spirit and self-confidence of the man. Although having no experience in the publishing business be started the Red Wing Republican, the second paper established in Goodhue County. The paper was a success from the start. His good business judgment was recognized by the people of Goodhue County a year later by his being chosen to fill the office of register of deeds. In 1861 he became a candidate for the upper house of the state legislature on the Republican ticket, but was defeated. The Civil War having broken, out at this time, Mr. Hubbard recognized his re- responsibility as a citizen, and was not slow in responding to his country's call. He sold his paper in December of that year and enlisted as a private in Company A, Fifth Minnesota, and was elected captain of his company on the fifth of February the following year. On March 20, 1862, the regiment was organized and Mr. Hubbard was advanced to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In May the regiment was divided, three companies being ordered to the Minnesota frontier, the other seven to the south. Mr. Hubbard went with the southern division, which participated, almost immediately after its arrival, in the battle of Farmington, Mississippi, then in the first battle of Corinth, where Colonel Hubbard was badly wounded. In August of that year he was appointed colonel of his regiment. He was in its command at the battle of Iuka, the second battle of Corinth, and at the battles of Jackson, Mississippi Springs, Mechanicsburg and Satartia, Mississippi; Richmond, Louisiana, and the assault and siege of Vicksburg. After the fall of Vicksburg Colonel Hubbard was given command of the Second Brigade, First Division, Sixteenth Army Corps. The brigade participated within a very short time in seven battles on Red River in Louisiana and in Southern Arkansas. Returning to Memphis it also took part in several engagements in Mississippi, Arkansas and Missouri. It was also engaged in the battle of Nashville, Dec. 15 and 16, 1864, reinforcing General Thomas in this battle the brigade was badly cut to pieces; Colonel Hubbard had two horses killed under him, and was severely wounded. It added to his laurels, however, by capturing seven pieces of artillery, many stands of colors, and forty per cent more prisoners than were in its command itself. Colonel Hubbard was breveted brigadier general for conspicuous gallantry on this occasion. Subsequently he was engaged in military operations near New Orleans and Mobile, and was mustered out in September, 1865. During his tem of service, General Hubbard was engaged in thirty-one battles and minor engagements, and has a military record of which his state has reason to be proud. He returned to his home in Red Wing somewhat broken in health, but after a short rest engaged in the grain business, his operations becoming quite extensive. Some years later he turned his attention to railroad building, and in 1876 completed the Midland Railway, from Wabasha to Zumbrota. This road was subsequently purchased by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. Mr. Hubbard also organized and projected the Minnesota Central from Red Wing to Mankato. Later he projected the Duluth, Red Wing and Southern Railroad, of which he has actual control, as general manager, up to this time. Aside from his numerous business interests, Mr. Hubbard has always found time to take an active interest in public affairs. His political affiliations are with the Republican party. In 1868 he was nominated for congress from the Second Minnesota District, but declined on account of the regularity of the nomination being questioned. He served in the state senate in the sessions of 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875, but declined re-election in the following session. In 1881 he was nominated for the office of governor and elected by a handsome majority. He was re-elected in 1883, the latter term being for three years. His administration of this responsible office was marked for the high executive ability shown in the conduct of the affairs of the state. Many important legislative measures were enacted in response to his recommendation, among which may he mentioned: The creation of the present railway and warehouse commission, the existing state grain inspection system, the state inspection of dairy products, the present state sanitary system, the state board of corrections and charities, the establishment of the state public school at Owatonna, the organization of the state National Guard, and the change from annual to biennial elections. During Governor Hubbard's service in the gubernatorial chair the state's finances were also administered on the strictest business principles, and the taxes levied for state purposes averaged less than for the ten preceding years, or any similar period since. The rate of taxation was not only greatly reduced, but the public debt was materially decreased, and the trust funds of the state increased nearly two million dollars. Among other important positions of public trust which Governor Hubbard has held, may be mentioned his appointment, in 1886, on the commission to investigate the state railroad bonds and report on the means to he adopted to secure their surrender; his appointment by the legislature, in 1874, on the commission to investigate the accounts of the state auditor and state treasurer; his appointment by the same body, in 1879, on commission of arbitration to adjust the differences between the state and the state prison factors, and, in 1889, on the commission to compile and publish a history of Minnesota military organizations in the Civil War and the Indian War at that time.

In recognition of his distinguished services to his country, Governor Hubbard was appointed a brigadier general by President McKinley, June 6, 1896, and served throughout the Spanish - American War in command of the Third Division, Seventh Army Corps. This was a fitting tribute to a long and useful career, and an honor most worthily bestowed on one of the heroes of our Civil War.

Governor Hubbard is also actively identified the G. A. R. and kindred organizations. He is a member of Acker Post, G. A. R., St. Paul; Minnesota Commandery of the Loyal Legion, Minnesota Society Sons of American Revolution, Society of the Army of Tennessee, Society of American and of Foreign Wars. He is a member of the Red Wing Royal Arch Masons. He was married at Red Wing in May, 1868, Amelia Thomas, a daughter of Charles Thomas, and a lineal descendant of Sir John Moore. Their union has been blessed with three children, Charles F., Lucius V. and Julia M.

Amelia ( Thomas ) Hubbard was born in Kingstown, Ontario, May 13, 1843. She came to Minnesota in June, 1857, and located in Red Wing. She is a daughter of Charles Thomas a lineal descendant of Sir John Moore, She married at Red Wing in May, 1868, to Lucius P. Hubbard. Their union has been blessed with three children, Charles P., Lucius V. Julia M.

James J. Hill 's pioneer life was a fitting school for his later masterful achievements. His connection with river transportation of freight passengers on the Mississippi, Minnesota Red rivers, his local agency for the first railroad built in the state, his years of experience in the coal and wood business, all brought in close relations with methods of traffic and necessarily into contact with men. And where could one find a braver or abler set of men to be brought in touch with than Mr. Hill was called upon to mingle with in discharging the duties of his early pioneer life in Minnesota. Those men of giant minds and big hearts prepared him to meet in these later years the men the money marts of the world, as well as to choose his officers and men to conduct his railroad systems.

Among the many articles on his life, the Review of Reviews, November, 1900, by Mrs. Severance of St. Paul, was quite full.

John Ireland, archbishop of the diocese of St. Paul was born in Ireland Sept 11, 1838. Was ordained priest Dec. 21, 1861. Served as chaplain of the Fifth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers. Consecrated bishop Dec. 21, 1875.

Luther Gage Johnson was born at Concord, N.H., November 13, 1813. His parents removed during his infancy to Boscawin, Merrimac County, with whom he remained until twenty-three years of age, at which time he opened a general country store at Fisherville, now Penacook, J. S. Kimball as partner. Ten years late opened a tavern at Fisherville for the accommodation of stages and teams passing over turnpike road from Canada through Vermont Boston and Portsmouth. The country tavern in those days was headquarters for the neighbor to meet for the daily mail and exchange greetings.

In 1853, accompanied by his brother John C., he visited St. Anthony and decided to locate here. Returning to Fisherville he closed out his business and with his family reached St. Anthony in the spring of 1854, accompanied by his brother and Mr. Hubbard. They establish furniture factory just below the bridge crossing to Hennepin Island, which was furnished with power from the falls. Here for three years they carried on quite an extensive business for that time until 1857, when they sold out their business to the Barnard Brothers. Johnson Brothers then built a three-story stone store on Main street, just below the present Pillsbury A Mill, where they opened a general grocery and supply store, with Wm. M. Kimball and Mr. Hubbard partners. Two years later their partners retired from the firm, and the Johnson brothers continued the business under the style of L. G. & J. C. Johnson until 1880. The Johnson Brothers also laid out some additions to St. Anthony.

Mr. Johnson was alderman of the city in 1856, but did not seek or enjoy public positions. He was deacon of the First Congregational Church for more than twenty years. He was married Miss Cornelia E. Morrill, January 21, 1847. He died in August, 1897, in the same house he purchased and moved his family into on his arrival in St. Anthony in 1854, after an honorable, active and long business career, loved by those knew him intimately and highly respected by all of his acquaintances.

Cornelia E. Johnson, widow of Luther G. Johnson, was born at Canterbury, N. H., December 6, 1826. Her father was Hon. Ezekiel Morrill of Canterbury, N.H. She was married to Mr. Johnson January 21, 1847, who died at Minneapolis, August, 1897, leaving four children, the eldest son, Edward M., late judge of the district court of Hennepin County, being born in New Hampshire; Mary, wife of Lieut. John A. Lundeen of the U. S. Army; William C., secretary of the Northwestern. Casket Co.; and Luther A. Johnson, who died in January, 1897. Mrs. Johnson resides in the same house she occupied with her family on their arrival at St. Anthony, in April, 1854.

W. R. Johnson was born in Dover, New Hampshire, June 8, 1837. He came to Minnesota May 1, 1857 and located at St. Peter. He enlisted in Co. E 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry at Fort Snelling, May 23, 1861. He was wounded at the battle of Antietam September 17, 1862, and discharged from service on account of said wound. He moved to St. Paul in 1864 and entered the employ of the Berrisford Baking and Confectionery Company July 1, 1877. He remained with the company until they retired from business, April, 1897. He then organized the North Star and Silver Star Candy Companies, which are still in existence, May 1, 1901.

Edwin Smith Jones was born June 3, 1828, at Chaplin, Windham County, Connecticut. His father, David Jones, was of Welsh descent, and his mother, Percy Russ Jones, was of English stock. His father was a sturdy farmer, who tilled one of the hill farms of Connecticut. His father died when he was ten years old, and his mother when he was seven. All the education which he obtained was in the common district schools of the neighborhood and several terms at Munson Academy. At sixteen he began teaching school, and, with his older brother, carried on the home farm, until his removal and departure to Minnesota in the spring of 1854, settling in Minneapolis, which was then only a straggling village. As was customary in those days, he came up the river to St. Paul by boat, and then on to Minneapolis to join the pioneer village, residing first in what was called St. Anthony.

Just before coming to Minnesota he had begun the study of law in the office of Ron. J. H. Carpenter, of Willimantic, Connecticut, and continued his study of law upon coming to Minneapolis in the office of the Hon. Isaac Atwater, being admitted to the bar in 1855. He continued the practice of law until the breaking out of the Civil War. Just prior to his departure for the seat at war, he, with other citizens, were called upon in quelling the Indian outbreak on the frontier, and was one of a group of volunteers who went to the front to protect and assist the terror-stricken farmers upon the frontier.

Early in 1862 he received an appointment from the government to an important service in the South as commissary of subsistence, mainly in the Department of the Gulf. His most important service was perhaps in connection with the ill- fated Red River expedition. He was the chief commissary of that expedition, both up and back During his service his headquarters were, at various times, at New Orleans, Mobile, Baton Rouge, Port Hudson and Shreveport. At the close of the war he retired and was brevetted as major for faithful and meritorious service.

On returning from the army, in 1865, he took up again the practice of law until 1870. During this period he was for three years judge of probate of Hennepin County. Prior to the incorporation of the town of Minneapolis into the present city, me was chairman of the board of supervisors, and, with Dorillus Morrison, was one of the candidates for the office of mayor at the first city election of the new city. He subsequently served two years in the common council as alderman of his ward, all of which positions he filled with ability and with a high sense of his responsibility and obligation in the various positions of trust or duty to which he was called.

He was the founder of the first savings bank in the city of Minneapolis - the Hennepin County Savings Bank, and served as its president from the date of its organization, in 1870, until his death.

During the later years of his life he carried out many plans of beneficence and charity, among them a long-cherished plan in the founding of an old ladies' home, through the agency of the Woman's Christian Association of Minneapolis, now known as the Jones-Harrison Home. He was a director or trustee of a number of educational institutions, both in the State and beyond its borders, and was also a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In the mountains of North Carolina he also established and maintained a large school for girls, which is still a flourishing institution for the education of Southern white girls of the mountain districts, and continues to do a fine work under the name of Jones Seminary.

Judge Jones was a man of very large benevolence, and during his lifetime gave very largely of his wealth to aid educational and charitable institutions. He was one of the broad-minded, liberal citizens among the older settlers of Minneapolis who helped to lay the broad and deep foundations of that beautiful city, and whose, most earnest desire was always for its higher life.

He died at Minneapolis in January, 1890.

John Kerwin was born in Queens County, Ireland, in 1833. He came to Minnesota April 17, 1857, and soon became interested in farming and the sale of agricultural implements, in which latter business he remained for many years. Mr. Kerwin is a land owner in Minnesota and other states, owning a fine tract of timber in Washington state, and has valuable property in St. Paul. Mr. Kerwin married Miss Hannah Sullivan June 17, 1859.

Mr. and Mrs. Kerwin have three sons and two daughters.

Ceasar Knott was born Glossop, Derbyshire, England. He came to Minnesota via the Mississippi River, on the steamboat Lady Franklin, in May, 1855, and located in Shakopee. He worked at the tinners' trade until September, 1866, then moved to Jordan and opened a hardware business. In 1893 he retired from active business. His wife died in Jordan, July 9, 1890, aged 59 years, leaving three sons and one daughter. He was commissioned by Governor Ramsey captain in the Twenty-fourth Regular State Militia, June 6, 1863. He was a member of the Jordan school board for nine years, and justice of the peace four years. He was always in favor of public improvements, or any measure that would be a benefit to the city of his adoption. Enlisted, in Captain T. J. Galbraith's company during the Inkpaduta outbreak at Spirit Lake, Iowa, in 1856; passed through the exciting times of the Indian massacre in 1862, and assisted materially in time and money during the Civil War in inducing enlistments, and although disqualified physically from being a soldier, was ever interested in the Union soldiers' welfare.

David Lansing Kingsbury was born December 28, 1842. He came to Minnesota November 1, 1856. He enlisted in August, 1862, in Company E, Eighth Minnesota Infantry Volunteers. He served two years. Was on the frontier during the Sioux Indian War, then south from October, 1864, to July 11, 1865, in campaigns in Tennessee and North Carolina. Actual service thirty-four months and eleven days. Promoted to the rank of corporal in 1863, and sergeant in 1864, second lieutenant in 1865. When the war closed Mr. Kingsbury went into the mercantile business until 1890. He is now assistant librarian Minnesota Historical Society; also recorder Minnesota Commandery Military Order Loyal Legion of the United States. He was married to Annie S. Braman October 26, 1869.

Anna B. Kingsbury was born December 6, 1839, in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Came to Minnesota in November, 1856, on the steamer War Eagle. She located in Minneapolis. Mrs. Kingsbury was the daughter of Enos Lewis Braman and Lydia Johnston, who were married at Berlio, Vermont, and emigrated to the then far west, now the State of Wisconsin, in 1836, where they purchased from the government 160 acres of land lying along the Rock River. Here they lived until 1847. Miss Braman was married to David L. Kingsbury October 26, 1869.

David Buel Knickerbocker was born in Schaghticoke, N. Y., Feb. 24, 1833, youngest son of Hon. Herman Knickerbocker of Albany, known as "The Prince," and referred to by Washington Irving in his History as "My Cousin, The Congressman." Bishop Knickerbocker received his education in Union Village Academy, Washingtontown, N. Y.; entered Trinity College at the age of sixteen; graduated and entered the Episcopal Theological Seminary in New York at twenty; graduated and ordained deacon by Bishop Potter at twenty-three. With his young bride he came at once to Minneapolis as missionionary assistant to Mr. Chamberlain at Holy Trinity, St. Anthony.

On a bitter cold Sunday morning in November, 1856, Bishop Kemper held the first service in Minneapolis in the small wooden structure of Gethsemane Church, corner of Fifth street and Seventh avenue south. At this service the young clergyman presented a class of five persons for confirmation. In the spring of 1857 Mr. Knickerbocker became rector of the church, and in one year it became self-supporting. In 1865 the church was rebuilt at a cost of $5,000, and was consecrated by Bishop Whipple Dec. 14, 1865.

Under the strong, young, methodical, determined man the work grew and broadened, including a dozen missions, Cottage Hospital, now St. Barnabas, and Indian work.

In 1877 the degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him by his alma mater, Trinity College, and in 1883 he was elected bishop of Indiana. During the eleven years of service as bishop he did his most powerful work. All church debts diminished, all funds increased, churches, schools, homes, hospitals, parishes, houses and rectories were built, and at his death his heart's desire was nearing accomplishment in the fund for endowment of the bishopric of Indiana. The Rev. G. N. Carlenson said of him: "The bishop was one of the strongest personalities I have ever known. He was a man of affairs. He had the business capacity that qualified him to be president of a railroad if his walk in life had fallen in that direction. A man of strong will; a man of the best sense; a father in the Lord to all his clergy; a man entirely free from all bitterness and prejudice, and while he was positive in his views, he had a broad mind and always gave the fullest justice to all who differed with him. The beloved bishop died Jan. 1, 1895 of pneumonia, contracted through over devotion to his work.

"Though apart from us we still feel his presence all about us."

Sarah ( Moore ) Knickerbocker was born in London, England, in 1836. She was married to D. B. Knickerbocker, late bishop of Indiana, at Brooklyn, N. Y., in the summer of 1856, and soon after came to St. Anthony with her husband. They had two children. The daughter died in Minneapolis in 1865, at the age of seven, and the son, David, was killed by attempting to jump on cars at the St. Paul & Pacific depot in the fall of 1866.

Mrs. Knickerbocker has resided in Indianapolis, Indiana, since the bishop's death.

Anthony Kelly was born at Swinford, County Mayo, Ireland, Aug. 25, 1832. When fifteen years of age he came, with his parents, to America and settled near Montreal, Canada. After acquiring a good common school education and the rudiments of a business training he located at Macon, Georgia, where he conducted a retail grocery store for several years. In the spring of 1858, having sold out his business at Macon, he came to Minneapolis on a visit to his brother, P. H. Kelly, who came to Minnesota the year previous. He was so well pleased with the opportunities for business that he decided to remain, and soon after associated himself with his brother, opening a retail grocery store on Washington avenue near Helen street, now Second avenue south. The Kelly brothers were popular and successful from the first. In a few months their business had increased so that they needed more room, and they moved into the Woodman building, on the comer of Helen. Later the Kelly brothers found that the central point for business was working towards Bridge square, and quickly deciding to be at the front, moved again. In 1863 P. H. Kelly withdrew from the firm and went to St Paul, and Anthony conducted the business alone for three years, when Hiram W. Wagner joined him as a partner under the firm name of Anthony Kelly & Co. They then began to fill wholesale orders for goods in their line, and by gradual degrees this department became more important than the retail business, which was discontinued. Soon after the business increased to such an extent that more room needed, and Mr. Kelly built the stone building on the corner of Washington avenue north and Second avenue. Mr. Wagner died in 1895, after which time Mr. Kelly conducted the business alone. During all of the years Mr. Kelly was in business in Minneapolis he devoted a portion of his time to the local interests of the city.

Mr. Kelly had hosts of friends, especially among the old settlers and his long time associates, who felt and expressed real sorrow when the announcement was made on the morning of June 1, 1899, that he was dead.

In politics Mr. Kelly was a staunch Democrat, but never an office holder or office seeker. He was an earnest believer in the Catholic faith, but tolerant and charitable towards all Christian religions.

Mr. Kelly was married in Minneapolis, April 26, 1863, to Anne Willey, widow of Ulysses S. Willey, a prominent attorney, who came to Minnesota in 1857 and died in 1860, while a member of the state legislature. Mrs. Kelly was the daughter of Hon. Wm. C. Haymond of West Virginia, where she was born. Two sons and four daughters were born to Mr. and Mrs. Kelly.

Edward Everett King was born at Danvers, now Peabody, Mass., August 1, 1836. His father, Daniel Putman King, was also born in the same house in 1800, and the property is now owned by Edward and his brother. His father graduated at Harvard in 1823, studied law, became a farmer, was a member of the Massachusetts legislature in 1836 and 1837; was a member of the state senate in 1838 and 1839, and president of House in 1843, and represented his district in Congress from 1843 until his death in 1850.

When Edward E. became twenty-one years of age he started for Minnesota in August 1857. The following year he purchased of Wm. Finch 160 acres of land at Richfield, where he made his home until 1880. He was married to Anna Nora, daughter of Cornelius C. Couliard, November 17, 1863, her birthday anniversary. She died in Richfield, August 17, 1877. Mr. King still owns the farm, but soon after the death of his wife moved to Minneapolis. He is the only person who has continuously held a box in the Minneapolis post office since 1857. Although he was not a soldier in the Civil War he annually contributes to the support of the Geo. N. Morgan Post, and the past year was one of the liberal contributors to the log cabin fund of. the Territorial Pioneer Association, of which he is an active member.

Martin Layman was born Jan. 18, 1811, in Greene County, New York, and was married in 1831 to Elizabeth Brown.

He came to Minneapolis in 1853 with a family of eleven children, and afterwards two more were born, making thirteen children in all, ten of which are living at the present time.

He preempted a section of land bordering on what is now Lake street. He did not then suspect that twenty-seven acres, cornering on what is now Cedar avenue and Lake street, would be used as a place of sepulture. Such is the case, however; on that level tract of land, now some miles within the city limits, lie buried over 21,000 bodies. The history of the land is interesting. As mentioned above, Martin Layman, pre-empted a section of land, but soon afterwards found it to be school land, and in order that his pre-emption claim might hold good, it was necessary that this section should be set aside from the school lands by special act of congress, which was done, and Mr. Layman's title to the land became clear. A portion of that land thus obtained directly from the government was never transferred till it went to Mr. Layman's heirs after his death, in 1886.

Martin Layman built the sixth house at Minneapolis on the west side, but settlers came soon and fast.

In 1855 there was a death near Mr. Layman's, and the family having no land, Mr. Layman gave them a corner, now Cedar avenue and Lake street, for a burial place, and "Uncle Wardell" was thus the first person to be laid away there. In 1859 a half-acre was laid out by Mr. Layman as a family lot and for the accommodation of the neighbors. The following year he platted ten acres, under the name of the Minneapolis Cemetery. In 1871 ten acres were added and again in 1886, just before he died. an addition of seven acres more, making in all twenty-seven acres. For many years this was the only cemetery in Minneapolis on the west side. Col. John Steven's daughter, the first white child born in Minneapolis, was buried in the family lot in this cemetery.

Martin Layman died at his residence on Cedar avenue July 25, 1886, at the age of seventy-five years.

Elizabeth Layman, wife of Martin Layman, was born in Greene County, N. Y., July 25,1813. She died at the age of 73 years, on Nov. 2, 1886. Her remains were laid at rest by the side of her husband, in the family lot in the Layman cemetery. Their surviving children are: Parmelia J. Getty (widow), Charles B. Layman, Sarah E. Bruce (widow), Isaac Layman, Margaret S. Garvey, Willam E. Layman, Jerome G. Layman, Annie B. Van Valkenburg, Florence A. Blecken and Clarence M. Layman. Their deceased children were: John D. Layman, Clarissa Parker and James W. Layman.

O. M. Laraway was born at Chardon, Grange County, Ohio, September 7, 1832. He came to Minneapolis in May, 1857, bringing a lot of butter, cheese and dried apples with him from the Western Reserve, Ohio, and opened a grocery store on corner of Hennepin avenue and Second street. He continued in the grocery business alone at different locations on Bridge Square until burnt out in 1865. He then took Mr. Mills into partnership and did a wholesale and retail business. In 1867, Mr. Shuey succeeded to Mr. Mills' interest, and they continued the wholesale business on the corner of Nicollet avenue and Second street until the death of Mr. Shuey in 1870. Mr. Laraway then closed out the business and organized the Minneapolis Plow Works, in partnership with Messrs. King and Perine, which business he continued until 1883. Since 1886 he has been engaged in fire insurance and real estate business with his son, under the firm name of O. M. Laraway & Son.

For twenty-four years Mr. Laraway has been secretary of the Mechanic's and Workingmen's Loan and Building Association of Minneapolis, one of the few building and loan associations that has been successfully conducted in the state. It never had a lawsuit and always paid claims in full.

He has held the following official positions: 1860, clerk board of town supervisors; 1863 and 1864, secretary of Sioux Commission, created by act of Congress to take testimony and award damages caused by Sioux Indian outbreak of 1862; 1865, a member of board of town supervisors; 1867 to 1877, city treasurer of City of Minneapolis; 1882 to 1886, postmaster of City of Minneapolis. He was married to Abbie P. Clark at St. Anthony in 1857.

Abbie F. ( Clark ) Laraway, wife of O.M. Laraway, was born at Kinsman, Ohio, March 5, 1837. She was married to Mr. Laraway on November 8, 1857. They have one son, Floyd, who is in business with his father, and one daughter, Abby Grace Laraway, born in Minneapolis June 1, 1874, married in 1892 to Arthur Von Schlegell.

Samuel B. Loye, born in Chatham, Mirannche, New Brunswick, July 20, 1835. He came up the Mississippi River on the steamer War Eagle in the spring of 1857, and located at St. Paul, engaging in the harness business on upper Third street, opposite the old American Houm It was while in business there in 1861, working all night in order to complete a government contract for halters to equip Hatche's Battalion, that the best hotel in St. Paul at that time, the Winslow House, burned to the ground.

In 1865 he removed to Minneapolis and formed a partnership with A. M. Greely and Louis Laramee, under the firm name of Greely, Loye & Co., which was afterwards succeeded by Loye, Harrison & Knight.

After retiring from the above firm, Mr. Loyr bought out the saddlery stock of Mr. Cogswell, who had carried on a harness business near Loye's present location, 114 Washington Avenue south, where for the last eighteen years, in the same store, he has been engaged in the harness business under the firm name S. B. Loye & Sons.

Mr. Loye was married to Antoinette Palmer, daughter of Rev. Lyman Palmer of Brooklyn, Hennepin County, Oct. 14, 1861. Politically Mr. Loye has always acted with the Republican party, and from 1888 to 1898 he served as alderman of the Fourth ward of the city, being president of the council for the last two years.

Antoinette Palmer Loye, daughter of Rev. Lyman Palmer, and wife of Samuel B. Loye, was born at Hillsdale, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1838. She came to St. Anthony in 1853 with her father's family. She was married to Mr. Loye at Brooklyn, Hennepin County, Oct. 14, 1861. Their home is on Ridgewood avenue, Minneapolis.

Jerome G. Layman was born at Brimfield, Ill., September, 15, 1852. He arrived in Minneapolis April 20, 1853, with his parents, Martin and Elizabeth Layman, and settled on the tract of land known as the Layman Homestead, situated on Cedar avenue and Lake street, and has resided continuously in this city ever since. He is willing to count days spent in this city on the west side of the Mississippi river with any person, having lived here over 17,500 days. Can anyone beat this?

His younger days were spent in the district school, putting in his extra time on the farm and in the Minneapolis Cemetery, until the spring of 1870, when he took charge of the cemetery and continued as actuary until the spring of 1880.

At that time, in partnership with George Knickerbocker, they opened up a furniture store at 412 and 414 Nicollet avenue, under the firm name of Knickerbocker Furniture Co., until November 13, 1882, when it was completely destroyed by fire.

Later he associated himself with Edward F.L. Blecken in the fire insurance business, which they continued until a few years ago.

At the present time, he is the proprietor of the Cornell Hotel, situated at Nos. 29 and 31 South Fifth Street, Minneapolis.

Timothy Lynch was born in Montgomery County, New York, on the 20th of August, 1838. He came to Minnesota in June, 1857. His occupation is that of a farmer. He was appointed postmaster in the village of Ashton in 1866 and served six years. He has held all the different town and school offices; served the town of Ripley three years as chairman of the board of supervisors; was seventeen years assessor for said town. In 1892 he was elected town clerk of Ripley, and now occupies that office - 1901. He was elected school treasurer of District No. 39 in 1872, and holds the same position at the present time. He was elected county commissioner for Dodge County in 1894 and served four years.

James Sargent Lane was born in St. Stephens, N.B., August 6, 1833. He came to St. Anthony October 17, 1852, and was married to Miss Aubine Dorman, daughter of Israel Dorman, December 1, 1860. Mr. Lane was appointed surveyor general of lags and lumber for the Second District of Minnesota by Governor Stephen Miller and later by Governor William Marshall. He has been alderman of the second ward of Minneapolis for two terms, and is member of the City Council at the present time. Mr. Lane is a Republican, a Mason, and, was for several years foreman of Cataract Fire Engine Company, the first organized in the city. It was while be was foreman that at a trial between the Cataract hand engine and the first St. Paul steamer that the Cataract was victorious. Mrs. Lane arrived in St. Anthony with her parents in 1856.

William Henry Lauderdale was born in Livingston County, N. Y., August 15, 1830. His father was a Scotchman and came alone from Edinbargh when he was fourteen years of age. William Henry was a tailor. He married Mary E. Sloane March 20, 1852. Mary Sloane was a sister of J. Oscar Sloane, and granddaughter of Col. John Sloane, United States Senator from Ohio for eighteen years, whose home was Wooster, Ohio. They arrived at St. Paul on the steamer, "War Eagle," October 10, 1854, and settled in Minneapolis, taking a claim near Lake Calhoun, where they resided for ten years. The land he preempted he paid for at the rate of five percent interest per month. The Lauderdales went through many privations in the early days.

At the first agricultural and horticultural fair held in Minnesota by the Hennepin County Society, October 20, 1854, Mr. Lauderdale was one the exhibitors, being one of the first to introduce fancy poultry into the county. In the year 1863 he left the farm and opened a dairy business Minneapolis, from 1868 to 1878.

In 1865 Mr. and Mrs. Lauderdale joined the Plymouth Congregational Church. Mrs. Lauderdale died August 8, 1872. In 1875 Mr. Lauderdate married his second wife, Susan Robertson. There are six children living, of which Mrs. Frank W. Murch, Mrs. Freeman P. Lane, and Frank W. Lauderdale are the children of his first wife, and George Rays Lauderdale, Harry T. Lauderdale, and Mildred Lauderdale of the second.

Mr. Lauderdale has been engaged in the real estate business in Minneapolis for over twenty years. He is known as an old Mason, Knight Templar, and Scottish Rite Mason, an order he loves.

A.L. Larpenter was born in the City of Baltimore, Md., on the Old Homestead on the Pemlico Road, May 16, 1823. Went to St. Louis, Mo., in 1841, and came to St. Paul, Minn., Sept. 15, 1843. Has lived here continually ever since. Dec. 7, 1845, he married Mary Josephine Presley, a sister of the late Bartlett Presley.

Mr. and Mrs. Larpenteur have ten children, five boys and five girls; all are living and well

Mr. Larpenteur's forefathers came from France. In a volume sent him from their native town, Thomery, situated on the River Seine, joining the Forest of "Fontainbleau," 45 miles from Paris, entitled, "Thomery, Ancient and Modern," we find the beginning. Anne Larpenteur, born July 8, 1645, son of Denys Larpenteur and Nicolle Bobee. They are good agriculturists, good, independent farmers. His grandfather, Lonis Benoist Larpenteur, came to America in 1816; remained two years. He was a member of the national guard, a strong supporter of the first empire, and a personal friend of the great Napolean. He returned to France in 1818 for his family, returning, locating in Baltimore. Mr. Larpenteues father, the oldest son, married a Miss Simmons. Her father was of Irish parentage and a drummer boy at the battle of North Point at the time of the invasion by the British in 1814. Was a member of the society of Old Defenders, which society has now become extinct. On the 12th of September of each year they had a reunion at Barnum's Hotel.

A.J. Meacham was born in the town of Ellison, Ill., Sept 15, 1840. Came to Minnesota with his parents, Jeremiah and Elizabeth Meacham, landing at Red Wing on the 18th day of September, 1855. Lived on a farm, five miles from Red Wing, two years; then attended school at Hamline University for three years. Taught in district schools two years, then went into general mercantile business until 1870. Was bookkeeper and treasurer of the North Star Iron Works at Minneapolis from May 1, 1870 to Oct. 20, 1876, which position he resigned to take a position at Red Wing. Was engaged in real estate and loan business. He held the office of school director at Red Wing for fifteen years.

Was married to Elizabeth Bassett of La Port, Ohio, in 1867. She died in 1878, leaving two sons and one daughter. In 1879 he was married to Mary I. Raymond of Winona County, Minn.

Henry L. Moss was born in Angusa, Oneida, County, New York, March 23, 1819. His early education was in the common schools and academy of his native town. In 1836 he entered Hamilton College and graduated therefrom in June 1840. Having decided to make the profession of law his future business, he immediately, after his graduation from college, entered the law office of Carpenter & Osborn of Waterville, N. Y., and subsequently, in 1841, removed to Sandusky, O., the residence of his parents, and entered the law office of Parish & Sadler, and in January, 1843, was admitted to practice in the supreme court at Columbus, O. In the summer of the same year he made a trip of pleasure and observation westward through the State of Michigan and Territory of Wisconsin, traveling from Milwaukee to the Mississippi River in the only public conveyance then in use, a two-horse stage wagon.

He was much interested in the business activity of the towns in the lead mine district of the southwestern part of the territory, and in June, 1845, he removed to Platteville, Grant County, and at once became actively engaged in his profession, and in the litigation incident to a mining community. Upon the organization of the State of Wisconsin in the spring of 1848. Mr. Moss had the foresight of the certainty of a territorial organization beyond the western boundary of Wisconsin, and in April, 1848, he removed to Stillwater, a thrifty town upon Lake St. Croix, and a prominent location in the new prospective territory.

Upon the organization of the Territory of Minnesota, March 4, 1848, President Taylor appointed Mr. Moss United States District Attorney for the territory, which office he held until his successor was appointed upon the advent of the administration of President Franklin Pierce. He was married September 20, 1849, to Amonda Horsford at her home in Charlotte, Vt. They made Stillwater their residence till June, 1851, when they removed to St. Paul, where they have ever since continued their residence.

In October, 1863, Mr. Moss was again appointed United States district attorney for Minnesota by President Lincoln, and held the office until 1868. It was during these years that many new and important questions came before the federal courts for decision, arising under the internal revenue and recruiting laws, which required much labor and investigation, and the legal proceedings pertaining to same were ably conducted by Mr. Moss. Since then he has not engaged in the active general practice of his profession. He has, however, been continually employed in financial and insurance matters, and even now, in the eighty-third year of his age, can be daily found at his office desk, apparently as active as in his youthful days.

Mrs. Amanda H. Moss was born in the town of Charlotte, State of Vermont, August 18, 1821, and was married in the home of her parents on September 20 , 1849. In the month of May, 1848. she came to Stillwater under the auspices and recommendation of Governor Slade of Vermont, and established the first public school in that town, and, after devoting one year to her duties in that town, she went in April, 1849, to St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin, and organized a school in that town, and in the month of July, same year, returned to her home in Vermont with the expectation of returning in the autumn to Stillwater.

Upon becoming a resident of St. Paul in 1851 she was active in the Christian and Sunday school work connected with the Presbyterian church, of which she was a member, and has ever since been prominent in many of the charitable and benevolent organizations of St. Paul. In late years her impaired health has made it necessary for her to relax her labors in many objects in which she retains a lively interest Yet now, in her advanced age, she is a zealous worker in the cause of the "Bethel Association," the "Woman's Christian Home," and much interested in missionary work with the ladies of the "House of Hope Church," of which she has been a member from its organization.

William Pitt Murray was born in Hamilton, Ohio, June 21, 1827. He attended the law school of Indiana University, and graduated in 1849, having also previously studied for that profession. He came to St. Paul in December, 1849, and is now one of the oldest lawyers in Minnesota. He has filled a number of official positions. He was a member of the Territorial House of 1852 and 1853; Council in 1854 and 1855, the latter year president; of the House of 1857, and Constitutional Convention of the same year; member of the House in 1863; Senate in 1866 and 1867, House in 1868, and Senate in 1875 and 1876--eleven sessions in all. He has also been a member of the common council continuously up to 1876, except about eighteen months while absent in South America.

Mr. Murray was elected city attorney in 1876, and held the office of city and corporation attorney for thirteen years. Mr. Murray is also a member of the State Training School and board of directors of the St. Paul workhouse.

No man in Ramsey County has been so honored with positions of this kind as Mr. Murray, and it may be said that no man has been more faithful, attentive and hard-working as a legislator, alderman or attorney than he, and fully deserves his remarkable popularity. In 1857 the now flourishing county of Murray was named for him.

Mr. Murray was married to Miss Caroline S. Conwell April 7, 1853, at Laurel, Ind. Mr. and Mrs. Murray have two sons and one daughter.

Richard Junius Mendenhall was born at Jamestown, N. C., Nov. 25, 1828. When nine years of age he spent one year at the Quaker boarding school of New Garden and then returned home and attended the village school for a few years, and assisting his father in his extensive tannery and helping his mother and sisters in the flower garden. Later he was employed in the store of his uncle in his native village, when one of his uncle's slaves escaped, and young Mendenhall was sent, with his cousin, in pursuit of the fugitive. They tracked him through the mountains of Virginia, embarking on a steamer on the Ohio river, proceeding to Cincinnati, and then to Richmond, Ind., where the pursuit was abandoned, the "underground railway" being in operation at the time. Young Mendenhall's father was what the Southerners called an abolitionist, and consequently he did not share in the disappointment of his cousin and uncle in the result of the trip. In 1848 he again entered the New Garden boarding school where he remained for two years, after which he went to Providence, R. I., where he entered the celebrated Friends' School. While at this school he spent a summer vacation at Center Harbor and Lake Winnepisaukee, N. H., where he met Cyrus Beede, with whom he formed an acquaintance that resulted, some fifteen years later, in their becoming partners in the banking and real estate business at Minneapolis, Minn.

After leaving the Providence school Mr. Mendenhall taught a school at North Falmouth, Mass., where he first met Miss Abbic G. Swift, who several years later became his wife. His next employment was as bookkeeper for Richard Fox on railroad construction work in Ohio, and afterwards with his brother engineering on the North Carolina Railroad. In 1855, with a letter of introduction to John Houston, engineer, he came to Muscatine, Iowa, where he was given charge of the rear end of a surveyor's chain, and thirty days later became the head of the party. He left the surveying party at Des Moines, where be spent the winter in the office of Dewey & Tabby, civil engineers and land agents. The next spring he came up the river, arriving at Minneapolis April 25, 18S6, where he has since resided.

In 1857 he was joined by Cyrus Beede, with whom be formed a partnership under the firm name of Beede & Mendenhall, and they engaged in loan and land agency, and private banking, locating on Bridge Square, nearly east of present City Hall. The financial panic of 1857 had a serious effect on their business, but they continued and preserved their credit. In January, 1858, Mr. Mendenhall visited West Falmoutn, Mass., where, on February 11th, he was married to Miss Abby G. Swift, returning a few weeks later to Minneapolis.

In the spring of 1862 Mr. Mendenhall was elected town treasurer, and to relieve the scarcity of fractional currency, silver having disappeared from circulation, the town council decided to issue scrip of different denominations of the following form: "Treasurer of Minneapolis will pay to bearer Five Cents, redeemable in currency when presented in sums of Five Dollars and upwards, dated August 1, 1862. Signed, S.H. Mattison, President; G.A. Savory, Town Clerk."

This script was then endorsed by Mr. Mendenhall, after which it passed into circulation, and was afterwards faithfully redeemed.

In 1862 Mr. Mendenhall became half owner and president of the State Bank of Minnesota which was afterwards merged into the State National Bank of Minneapolis, with a capital of $ioo,ooo. Mr. Mendenhall continued as president until 1871. In the panic of 1873 the State Savings Bank, of which he was president, was forced to suspend, and at much personal sacrifice Mr. Mendenhall has satisfied most of the claims growing out of the failure. Adjoining his beautiful home on Stevens avenue are extensive greenhouses, and since the adversity of 1873 he has devoted his time to the cultivation of plants and flowers for the market.

Mr. Mendenhall was one of the organizers of the Minneapolis Street Railway, the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway, the Minneapolis Gas Company and the Lakewood Cemetery Association.

Abby G. Mendenhall was the daughter of Captain Silas Swift, a merchant sailor of West Falmouth, and was born Aug. 19, 1832. She was descended from a long line of Quaker sailors who had always been connected with the charitable associations of the Society of Friends. She was married to R. J. Mendenhall of North Carolina, Feb. 11th, 1858, and in April the young couple came to Minneapolis. From the pioneer days Mrs. Mendenhall has always been a friend to those needing help, and her interest and influence is seen today in the charitable institutions of the city, She was one of the four women who were instrumental in the organization of Bethany Home and its work has always been very near her heart. She served as treasurer for twenty-three years, and for one term acted as secretary. She was also prominently identified with the Northwestern Hospital, and was a member of the board of directors for thirteen years and for six years held the office of vice president. The Friends' Society of Minneapolis counted her as one of its efficient members and she represented it at the national meetings an several occasions.

Without children of her own, Mrs. Mendenhall became by sympathy and choice mother to the unfortunate. Many of these have been inmates of her own family, from which they have gone to illustrate in their own households the virtues of Christian motherhood.

Mrs. Mendenhall's mother, Mrs. Chloe Swift, was a member of her family in Minneapolis until her death in 1891, at the age of ninety-five.

Mrs. Mendenhall died at her home in Minneapolis January 11, 1900.

George N. Morgan was born at Masina, St Lawrence County, New York, Sept 7, 1832. He was married to Delia E. Warner Dec. 9, 1852, and moved to St. Catherine's, Canada, where they lived until June, 1856, when they came to Minnesota, first locating for a few months at Lakeland, then at St. Paul until June, 1857, when they came to St. Anthony, and Mr. Morgan, in partnership with Mr. Morgan, opened the first foundry and machine shop at the falls. In April, 1861, he enlisted in Company E First Minnesota Volunteers, and was commissioned captain of the company. This regiment was the first regiment tendered the government under the three months call, and before leaving the state re-enlisted and was the first three years regiment of volunteers mustered into the service If the United States. Captain Morgan participated in all of the battles of the regiment, some twenty in number. Oct. 22, 1861, he was commissioned major of the regiment; Aug. 28, 1862, was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and on Sept. 26, 1862, colonel.

Colonel Morgan's health failing, he resigned May 6, 1863, and returned to Minnesota and was appointed major of the Second Veteran Reserve Corps in June and stationed at Fort Snelling. where he remained in command of the post for three months. In September, 1863, he was ordered to Louisville, Ky., where, on his arrival, he was commissioned colonel of the Second Veteran Reserves, which position he held up to the time of his death. He brought 500 prisoners to the Northern prisons that fall without the loss of a man. He was stationed at the barracks in Detroit, Mich., about one year, returning to Fort Snelling December, 1864, where he remained until June 30, 1865. On March 13, 1865, he was commissioned brevet brigadier general by President Lincoln, for gallant and meritorious service during the war. He died at his home in Minneapolis July 24, 1866, at the age Of 41, three weeks after being mustered out of government service.

Their eldest daughter, E. Louise, is the wife of S. B. Lovejoy, postmaster of Minneapolis. A son, Major George H. Morgan, is in the regular army, and now in the Philippines; Frederick is bookkeeper for the Illinois Watch Co. at Springfield, Ill.; Delia, now Widow Maher, is with her mother, and Capt. Alfred Sully Morgan has been with the army in the Philippines. Their oldest son was in the battle of Santiago, Cuba, and their youngest son was in the battle of Manila.

Prior to going into the army General Morgan was a member of the firm of Scott & Morgan, who built the second foundry and machine shop, in Minnesota, and in 1859 built the Cataract and Germania fire engines, the first and best ever owned by the city of St. Anthony, and about ten years before the Minneapolis (west side) department was organized.

Mrs. Morgan was remarried to W. W. Woodward, Dec. 14, 1879, at Minneapolis, where he died Aug. 22, 1892.

Samuel McClay was born in the town of Ayr, Scotland, Jan. 20, 1837. He settled On section 25, Eden Prairie, Hennepin County, in November, 1854. Attended the ferry of Dean & Chambers in the summer of 1855; served an apprenticeship at the carpenter trade in Minneapolis in 1866 and 1867; enlisted as private in Company C Sixth Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 14, 1862,, mustered out as first lieutenant, Aug. 19, 1865; was at battles of Birch Coulic and Wood Lake, Minnesota, Spanish Fort and Blakeley, Alabama; served as clerk of school district No. 14. Hennepin County, from 1884 to 1896; elected supervisor town of Bloomington in 1880 and served continuously until March, 1901, the last five years as chairman.

Mr. McClay was married Jan. 1, 1868, to Marion Moran.

George Mitsch was born in Germany 1825. He came to this country in 1846, settling in Chicago, and engaged in the grocery business, and came to St. Paul in 1853, and lived here unto the time of his death. He was a blacksmith by trade, and shortly after his arrival here, opened up a shop, which he extended from time to time into a large wagon making establishment His firm built the first hose cart ever constructed for the St. Paul Fire Department, and other apparatuses used in the department were manufactured in their factory.

Mr. Mitsch was equally as well known in a public as in a business way, and his integrity as a public official was just as rigid as in the management of his own private business.

He was a member of the legislature in 1863; was a member of the city council for a long time, and served as a member of the board of county commissioners for nine years, being a member of that body during the building of the present city hall and court house. He was also a member of the commission in charge of the construction of the building, and took great interest in it.

Mr. Mitsch was a central figure in a number of religious and benevolent societies, being one of the board of managers of the St. Peter Benevolent Society and of the St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, and one of the founders of the German Catholic Aid Society, of which he was president sixteen years and an honorary member at the time of his death.

Mr. Mitsch died Sept. 13, 1895. He left a family consisting of his widow, one son and four daughters.

M. J. O'Connor and Wife. The former was born in London, Eng., March 27, 1833, Migrated with his parents to America in 1836. Received his education in New York City. Removed to Chicago in 1848. He came to Minnesota in 1855; opened a gent's furnishing establishment on Third street. Was a member of the common council from 1859 to 1862, refusing to be a candidate for re-election, but responded to the president's call for troops, and recruited for the Tenth Regiment, Minnesota Volunteers. Was chosen captain of Company K. Took part in General Sibley's campaign in fighting and driving the Sioux Indians across the Missouri River. Went south with his regiment in 1863; was appointed inspector general Department of the Missouri, and saw hard service while on inspecting tours, riding through southwestern Missouri. In 1864 his regiment was attached to the Sixteenth Army Corps and took part in the engagement at Tupelo, Miss., routing the combined forces of Forrest and Chalmers. Served under Gen. A. J. Smith part of the summer of 1864 and took part in several minor engagements. Was with the Tenth and a picked corps under Gen. Joe Mower, who were ordered to follow the confederate General Price, and encountered one of the most severe campaigns of the war, marching thirty consecutive days through Arkansas and Missouri, which terminated in the fight on the Little and Big Blue Rivers, at which Marmaduke and a large force was captured and Price finally driven from that section of the country. On the return of the Union forces south Captain O'Connor was left in the hospital in St. Louis. but recovered in time to join his command at Vicksburg, and took part in the twenty days' siege of Spanish Fort and final capture of Mobile, this being about the last battle of the war. He returned home with his regiment, having seen service from our northwestern boundary at Devil's Lake and the Missouri River, thence southward to the gulf Was mastered out at Fort Snelling in 1865. The following fall was elected city treasurer, which position he left to go into business with his brother, where he continued until 1870, when he was elected city clerk, which office he filled until 1879. He then formed a partnership and built the Northwestern Stock Yards, in which business he remained for a number of years.

In 1885 he was appointed by President Cleveland Appraiser of Customs for Minnesota. He is a member of the G. A. R.

In 1855 he married Miss Mary Fitzpatrick at Chicago, Ill. She was the daughter of Doctor Walter Fitzpatrick, Queens County, Ireland. She made a most amiable wife and mother. She died in November, 1897, leaving her husband and four sons and two daughters to mourn her loss.

John Conrad Oswald was born May 20, 1824, in Oberaach Canton, Theirgan, Switzerland. He was married August 12, 1847, in New York City, to Ussula FIizabeth Scheitlin, who was born in St Gallen, Switzerland, December 24, 1824. Mrs. Oswald died in Minneapolis, Minn., March 24, 1893, leaving a husband and four children - Matilda Ann, now Mrs. Theophil Basting; Lisette Sophie, now Mrs. Floyd Laraway; Bertha Maria, and Emma, now Mrs. Wm. L. O'Brien.

They first located in Virginia (now West Virginia) from October, 1847, until February, 1857, arriving in Minneapolis March 17, 1857. Mr. Oswald kept a general store until March, 1862, when he sold out and purchased a farm, now called "Bryn Mawr." Here he raised tobacco and manufactured wine made of fruits of all kinds for medical purposes. His success as manufacturer of "J. C. Oswald's Native Wines" induced him, in 1866, to add distilled liquors, and he then established the first wholesale wine and liquor business in Minneapolis. Later Theophil Basting, who had been with Mr. Oswald for several years, was taken in as a partner, since which time the business has been conducted under the firm name of J. C. Oswald & Co.

Mr. Oswald's application to business left him little time for attending societies of any kind, but at his quiet home his friends always found a cordial welcome.

In politics he always voted with the Democratic party, but was never desirous of any office and has repeatedly declined offers for nomination. At the time the park law was granted he was elected as one of the commissioners on the first board and served for four years, when he resigned on account of being absent from home for two years. Industrial enterprise being more to his taste, he acted as director of the Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R., also an incorporator and director of the Minneapolis & Sault Ste Marie & Atlantic R. R. Co.

His military career has been confined to the state militia only. In 1863 Gov. Henry A. Swift commissioned him as captain and the following year Gov. Miller commissioned him as major of the same regiment.

In 1886 he was prevailed upon by friends to accept the nomination for state senator and was duly elected for four years of two biennial sessions in a district which for years had been strongly Republican.

The office of Court Honse and City Hall Commissioner has also been added to his public functions.

Miles C. Obert was born at Friendship, Allegheny County, N. Y., Sept. 13, 1840. He came to Minneapolis Sept. 30, 1856, and on Oct. 24, 1867, he married Miss Sarah A. Peat.

He enlisted in the Second Minnesota Battery, Light Artillery, Jan. 16, 1862, and was mustered out as corporal gunner March 28, 1865. He was gunner for two years and a half, and was at the following battles: First battle of Corrinth, Miss.; Perryville, Ky.; Knob Gap, Stone River, Chickamaugua, Mission Ridge, Chattanooga, Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost; and while he was detailed in Battery 1, Second Illinois Light Artillery, as gunner, in No. 2 Tunnel Hill, No. 2 Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dalton, Ringoid, Rome, New Hope Church, Peach Tree Creek, Cassville, Rough and Ready, Kenasaw Mountain, Sand Town Roads, Atlanta, janesborough, and several others. January 30, 1866, he was comrnissioned as second lieutenant in the Third Battery, Light Artillery, Minnesota Volunteer State Militia.

Mr. Obert was a millwright and draughtsman, and was a partner with R. P. Russell in the Diamond Roller flour mill, located near Elk River, Minn. Later he entered the drug business in Minneapolis, Minn., where he now resides.

William Pfaender was born in Germany July 6, 1826. He came to Minnesota with his family in September, 1856, and settled in New Ulm. In 1856 he was manager of the German Land Association of Minnesota at New Ulm, and became a farmer. In 1860 he was elected register of deeds of Brown County, and the same year was one of the Republican presidential electors and voted for Lincoln on his first election. He was also a member of the legislature. In September, 1861, he enlisted in the First Minnesota Battery, and was commissioned first lieutenant in October, 1861. He participated in the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862, and commanded his battery during the day, in consequence of the wounding of Capt Munch early in the morning. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the First Minnesota Mounted Rangers, Dec. I, 1862, and cornmissioned Jan. 2, 1863, with the same rank in the Second Minnesota Cavalry. On being mustered out Dec. 7, 1865, he returned to his farm. He was a member of the state senate, 1870-71-72, land state treasurer from 1876 to 1880. He was engaged in the lumber business from 1869 to 1876, and has been engaged in real estate and insurance since 1880 at New Ulm. Was married to Cathrine Pfau, and the Colonel and Mrs. Pfaender have four sons and six daughters.

Samuel William Pond was born was born at New Preston, Conn., April 10, 1808. The Ponds were of English Puritan ancestry, the family settling in New England about the year 1630. Samuel attended the schools of Washington Village, Conn, where he became proficient in the branches taught in the public schools of that day. He remained in the vicinity, working either on the farm or in the fulling mill and dye house near by until March, 1833, when he set out for the west via Pittsburgh and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The next winter he spent in Galena, Ill., from which place he wrote his brother requesting him to come out and go with him as a missionary to the Indians of Minnesota. They arrived at Fort Snelling May 6, 1834. The acting agent, in the absence of Major Taliaferro, permitted them to occupy a vacant room in one of the agency houses. After looking over this letter and learning of their plans, the officers at the fort gave them permission to remain. Acting upon a suggestion from Major Bliss, Samuel went down to Kaposia to show the Indians how to make use of the oxen and plow sent them. The week spent there was his first introduction to the Indians, during which time he slept in the house of the Chief Big Thunder, father of Little Crow. Mr. Pond drove the oxen and Big Thunder and his chief soldier held the plow for the first furrows turned by the Dakotas.

It was at the log cabin built at Lake Calhoun, that the "Pond Alphabet" of the Dakota language was prepared that year.

In the winter of 1835-6, on a trip to Lac qui Parle, Samuel and guide became lost and for five days were without food. In the spring he returned to Lake Harriet, and in April returned to Connecticut via the lakes, intending to study for the ministry. He was ordained a missionary to the Sioux Indians on March 4, 1837, and immediately returned to Minnesota. His translation of the story of Joseph that summer was one of the first books put in the hands of the Dakotas in their own language. He was married to Cordelia Eggleston at Lake Harriet on Nov. 22, 1838 by Rev. J. B. Stevens. This was the first marriage in civilized form of white people within the present limits of Minneapolis, and was attended by several officers from Fort Snelling, Dr. Emerson and wife, owners of Dred Scott. the subject of justice Taney's famous decision, being of the party.

Owing to the constant warfare between the Chippewas and Sioux, the officer at the fort decided that the band of Dakotas of Lake Harriet should move south of the Minnesota River, and in May, 1840, the Ponds removed to a stone house a short distance above the fort.

In the spring of 1843 the Pond brothers built a log mission house at Oak Grove, now Bloomington, and in the summer of 1847 Samuel built a substantial frame house at Shakopee, the first one built above Fort Snelling, which house is still standing. Mr. Pond died there Dec. 12, 1891, at the age of eighty-three. He labored among the Indians for twenty years.

Gideon Holister Pond was born at New Preston, Litchfield County, Connecticut, June 30, 1810. At an early age he was apprenticed to a carpenter, Jared Frost, where he remained until about fifteen years of age, afterwards making his home with a married sister until he was of age, in the meantime becoming a thorough farmer. He, as well as his brother Samuel, owed much to the character, example and counsel of their mother through many scenes of hardships and discouragements.

In response to an appeal from his brother Samuel, written from Galena, December, 1833, Gideon, at the age of twenty-four, arrived at that place in April, 1834, to carry out their plan of becoming missionaries among the Sioux Indians of Minnesota, and on the first day of May they embarked on the steamer Warrior for St. Peters, arriving at Fort Snelling on the sixth day of May, 1834. Here the brothers were welcomed by Rev. W. T. Boutwell, a missionary of the American Board to the Ojibways at Leech Lake.

Mr. Pond spent a week with the Lake Calhoun band of Dakotas, the nearest to Fort Snelling, and assisted them about their plowing. Early in June, with the aid of the chief, they selected a site and built a log cabin on the east Shore of Lake Calhoun, twelve by sixteen and eight feet high, divided into two rooms. Slabs were obtained from the old government mill at St. Anthony Falls for the ceiling, and the single window was the gift of the kind-hearted Major Taliaferro, U. S. Indian agent at Fort Snelling. They built a fireplace and ebimney with stones found on the shore of the lake. In July the brothers put in their supplies -- a barrel of pork and a barrel of flour, which the Indians helped dispose of.

This house was the first house of citizen settlers in Hennepin County, and was also the first schoolroom and mission house among the Dakotas. Five years later it was torn down by its builders to construct a barricade for the defense of the Indians after the bloody battle with the Ojibways at Ram River.

In May, 1835, Dr, Thomas S. Williamson and Alexander G. Huggins, with their families, arrived at Fort Snelling, where they were welcomed by the Pond brothers; and soon after Rev. J. D. Stevens, also under appointment from the American Board, arrived. Mr. Stevens built that summer a mission house and a schoolhouse on the northwestern shore of Lake Harriet near the present location of the pavilion.

Dr. Williamson and Mr. Huggins located at Lac qui Parle. That winter Dr. Williamson asked for the assistance of the Ponds in learning the Dakotas' language, and Samuel went there, remaining until March, when he returned to Calhoun, and Gideon then went to Lac qui Parle, where he remained for three years. It was here, in November, 1837, that Gideon was married to Miss Sarah Poage of Ripley, O., sister-in-law of Dr. Williamson. In 1839 Mr. Pond returned with his family to Lake Harriet, where they remained about one year, when owing to the warfare between the Sioux and Chippewas, they moved to Fort Snelling and from there moved to Oak Grove, Bloomington, in 1843, where his first wife died in 1853. In 1854 he was re-married to Mrs. Hopkins, widow of Rev. Robert Hopkins, and continued to preach at Bloomington until a short time before his death, which occurred in 1878.

John Sargent Pillsbury was born at Sutton, N.H., July 29, 1828. His parents were John and Susan (Wadleigh) Pillsbury, and descended from the early Puritan stock of New England, his ancestors settling in Massachusetts in 1640. Mr. Pillsbury's education was limited to the district schools of the time, and at the age of sixteen he entered the country store of his brother, George A., at Warner, N. H., and afterwards went into business there in partnership with Walter Harriman. The experience and discipline obtained by him during, these years was of great value to him later in life. I After visiting the West, he decided to locate in Minnesota, and came to St. Anthony Falls in May, 1855, with a stock of hardware, George P. Cross and Woodbury Fisk being partners in the business. Mr. Cross retired from the firm after a few years, but the firm of J. S. Pillsbury & Co. was favorably known as one of the leading hardware dealers of the Northwest, until 1875, when Mr. Pillsbury sold his hardware business to engage move extensively with his nephew, Charles A. Pillsbury, in the milling business.

In the fall of 1857 the firm of Cross, Pillsbury & Fisk were burned out, with a loss of about $38,000. This calamity, happening at the time of the financial panic of that year, made it very difficult to put the business in good condition again at once, but Mr. Pillsbury soon had all matters adjusted, and the business was afterwards very prosperous. From 1872 to the present time Mr. Pillsbury has been extensively engaged in manufacturing flour and lumber and dealing in pine and mineral lands, being at this time one of the large stockholders and director of the Pillsbury-Washburn Milling Company, the largest manufacturers of flour in the world.

In 1863, after having previously served as alderman of the city of St. Anthony for several years, he was elected to the State Senate, and re-elected for eight terms additional prior to 1875, when he was elected governor of the state, in which capacity he served the state continuously for six years from January, 1876.

In 1862, it will be recollected that the affairs of the State University were in a hopeless condition financially, its lands covered by heavy mortgages and the lower floor of the one building buried under three feet of sand, which had drifted through the open windows. A new board of regents was then appointed, including Mr. Pillsbury and O. C. Merriman of Minneapolis. with Uriah Thomas as secretary, and one of the first public acts of Mr. Pillsbury after he was elected to the State Senate was to secure the passage of a bill authorizing the regents to sell the lands donated by Congress, compromise and settle all claims, and thus save the university, which would otherwise have been lost to the state. In the years following Governor Pillsbury devoted much of his time and many thousands of dollars in putting the Minnesota State University in the front rank of the educational institutions of the country, and the erection last year of his statue on the campus grounds by the alumni of the university was a tribute most worthily bestowed. Since 1863 he has been a member of the board of regents and president of same for several years.

Mr. Pillsbury is a director in five banks of the city, also of three railroads, besides being interested in many other financial as well as educational and charitable institutions, and now, at the age of seventy-three, gives his personal attention daily to the various enterprises with which he is connected.

Mr. Pillsbury is president of the Minnesota Territorial Pioneer Association, and the pioneers are largely indebted to his generosity for the log cabin erected at the State Fair grounds.

Mahala ( Fisk ) Pillsbury was born in the town of Springfield, N.H., May 8, 1832. Her father, Capt. John Fisk, and her mother, Sarah ( Goodhue ) Fisk, were long residents of Warner. The families of both of her parents were prominent in the early settlement of New England.

Her early years were passed at Warner, N. H., where she had the inestimable training of a New England Christian home. Later she had the advantages of an education at the Hopkinton Academy and at Sanhornton Seminary, where she graduated at the age of nineteen. During the years she was attending school and afterwards, until married, she was a teacher in the schools at Keene and other localities.

She was married to John S. Pillsbury, Nov. 3, 1856, and came with her husband to St. Anthony that month. On their arrival at Dubuque, Mr. Pillsbury, owing to the lateness of the season was obliged to stop for a few days to attend to the freight on his goods, and Mrs. Pillsbury proceeded up river alone, and on arrival at Hastings the passengers were obliged to change from the boat to the stage. Mr. Pillsbury followed in a few days on horseback, and joined his wife at the St. Charles Hotel, St. Anthony. Soon after they commenced housekeeping in apartments much smaller than they occupy today. Here they experienced in those early years the usual hardships and struggles of pioneers, but their domestic lives were blessed with the charms which education, music, church and benevolent work afforded. Mrs. Pillsbury identified herself with the First Congregational Church and became a worker for its success, which she has seen grow from its weak beginning until it is now one of the strongest in the state. During all of this time she has been a teacher in its Sunday school.

In 1880, Mrs. Pillsbury joined with other benevolent women in the establishment of a children's home, which was changed from one location to another until the society built a permanent home on Stevens avenue and Thirty-second street, at a cost of $40,000. Mrs. Pillsbury is president of the society. She is also interested in the Northwestern Hospital for Women and in the Washburn Home, in which she is a trustee. The present year she has had built a home for young women, where those worthy will find a pleasant home at a low expense. Her husband joined her in making a present of the building to the Women's Christian Association, at a cost of several thousand dollars. Mrs. Pillsbury says that her instinct to make other people happy, and to provide for their wants, is one of the gifts which God gave her and which she has always cultivated.

Of their five children, Addie A., the oldest, was married to Charles M. Webster, Oct. 4, 1884 and died April 2, 1885; Susan M. was married to Fred B. Snyder, Sept. 23, 1885, and died Sept. 3, 1891, leaving one son; Sarah Belle was married, June 28, 1892, to Edward C. Gale of Minneapolis, Alfred was married in June, 1899, to Miss Eleanor Field, daughter of Chief justice Field of Boston, Mass.

Curtis H. Pettit was born at Hanover, Columbiana County, Ohio, 1834.

He came to Minneapolis Oct. 22, 1856, and opened a private banking loan office, which business he conducted until 1861, at which time he engaged in the hardware trade on Bridge Square. He continued in the hardware business until 1866. Later he engaged extensively in the manufacture of lumber and flour at Minneapolis, in partnership with Jabez M. Robinson.

In 1858 Mr. Pettit became the owner of the Minneapolis Journal, and was publisher of the same for several months, with John G. Williams as editor, and the following year was a member of the town council.

Mr. Pettit was a member of the State Senate for the sessions of 1866, 1868, 1870 and 1871, and of the House of Representatives for the sessions of 1874, 1875, 1876 and 1887. He has been a member of the board of managers of the Minnesota State Reform School, now the Minnesota State Training School for Boys and Girls, since its organization, and is at present a member of the board.

Deborah M. ( Williams ) Pettit was born at Oakland, Juniata County, Pennsylvania, Oct. 28, 1833. She came to Minneapolis in July, 1856, and was married to Curtis H. Pettit, June 2, 1857.

They have been connected with the Westminster Presbyterian Church since its organization in 1857, and Mrs. Pettit is the only survivor of the eight original members of the church.

Of their five children, the only one now living is Mrs. Bessie Pettit Douglas.

Otis A. Pray was born in the town of Livermore, Maine, on the 28th day of February, 1833. At the age of eighteen he began a course of thorough training in the millwright business, and until 1857 was engaged in this occupation. In the spring of 1857 he came to Minneapolis and was employed on the improvements at the falls. In 1859 he built the first flour mill on the west side of the river, in Minneapolis (except the old government mill). This mill, the Cataract, belonging to Eastman & Gibson, was built on the canal of the mill company, and had a capacity for grinding 150 barrels of flour per day. It still stands, having been enlarged and capacity increased many times.

Mr. Pray built many mills in various parts the state, one of which was near St. Cloud, on the Sauk River. This mill was a pioneer surely, being the only one within a radius of sixty miles. He was associated with Leander Gorton in this work, and made his home in that locality for nearly three years.

Returning to Minneapolis in 1866, he became a member of the firm of Webster & Pray, who in a short time were actively engaged in mill furnishing. During this year they built the Washburn B mill, having a capacity of about 400 barrels of flour daily; but it was constructed upon the old system, and improvements in milling methods crowded closely on the erection of these great mills, and very soon this mill was the first to use middlings purifiers and rolls, supplied by the same firm, who kept pace with the times in these improvements. In 1876 the firm of O. A. Pray & Co. built an extensive plant of machine works on First street, near the falls, and an immense business in mill furnishing was carried on for some years, when the company was forced to suspend owing to the stringency of the times and the decline in activity of that line of business.

Mr. Pray was active in all public interests, being a member of the city council for several years, an active coadjutor of Dr. Tuttle in the work of his large and influential church, a most enthusiastic promoter of the Minneapolis Industrial Exposition, and, in fact in every undertaking in the interest of the city he loved so well.

From this rapid sketch it will be seen that Mr. Pray was a pioneer mill builder and finisher at Minneapolis, and that his enterprise has entered largely into the growth of manufactures here.

His death occurred on the 18th of March, 1890, he having been one of the most useful citizens of Minneapolis.

James M. Paine was born at North Anson, Maine, October 13, 1833. He left the parental roof at the age of sixteen years and accepted a position at the old Faneuil Market, Boston, Mass., where he remained a number of years, coming west in 1856 and joining his uncle, Parker Paine, then a banker of St. Paul, Minn.

Soon after, he engaged in the lumbering business, then in its infancy in this state, which line of business he followed very successfully until the civil war broke out, when he was among the very first to organize Company "A," mounted rangers, for the defense of the settlers of the Northwest against the depredations of the savages, who were led by that implacable enemy of all white men the renowned Sioux chief, Sitting Bull.

During four or five years of this border warfare, numerous battles were fought with the Sioux nations, and Captain Paine was several times advanced in rank and honorably mentioned for bravery in battle, and especially for remarkable executive ability and judgment in handling troops under fire from a concealed foe.

About 1868, he was selected to handle the large transportation trains then operated by Merriam, Wilder & Co. in supplying the United States forts in the hostile Indian country of the Northwest.

Sitting Bull had made a declaration that no white man would ever lead a train through his country and return to his people alive.

These trains consisted of heavily loaded wagons, hauled by at least six oxen for each wagon, and there were generally about 500 such wagons in each train. The men with the trains were all armed with the new Henry repeating rifles and had many pitched battles with the savages.

For thirty years prior to his death Captain Paine, while making his home in Minneapolis, carried on an extensive lumber business at Carleton, Minnesota, where he built and owned the first sawmills operated in Carleton County, the late W. W. McNair and Eugene Wilson being interested with him in the business a portion of the time.

Captain Paine died of Bright's disease, at Atlanta, Georgia, March 23, 1900, at the age of sixty-seven years, leaving a family of wife, three daughters and one son to mourn the death of a loving husband and father, and a kind friend to many who needed a helping hand in time of trouble.

William W. Parkinson was born in Edwardsville, Ill., July 14, 1837. He, with his parents, moved to Wisconsin, where he lived until his eighteenth year. He came to Minnesota April 20, 1855. He was married to Augusta M. Freeman July 15, 1855. He made a trip to Wisconsin to dispose of property and returned to Minnesota in the spring of 1857, and located on section 19, town of Sumner, Fillmore county, where he still owns a well stocked farm of 200 acres, which he has rented to his son, and bought a beautiful home in the quiet village of Pleasant Grove where Mr. and Mrs. Parkinson still live.

Mr. Parkinson has held responsible positions, being town treasurer and treasurer of the A. F. A. M.; also notary public.

Mrs. A.M. Freeman Parkinson was born in Lewiston, Fulton County, Ill., Sept. 19, 1839. Came to Minnesota June 23, 1854, and lived with her parents on land now occupied by the town of Chatfield. She was married to W. W. Parkinson July 15, 1855, by George M. Geere. Commenced farming with her husband in Sumner, Fillmore County, where she lived until 1895, then moved to Pleasant Grove, where she now resides, where she and Mr. Parkinson have a beautiful home.

John Christmas Reno was born at Londonville, Ohio, December, 1822. His grandfather, Rev. Francis Reno, was educated at William and Mary College, Virginia, ordained an Episcopal clergyman in 1792, and later built the first Episcopal Church west of the Allegheny mountains; his father, John Reno, was a merchant and farmer in business at first in Pittsburg, PA, and afterwards moving to Londonville, where the subject of this sketch was born. His mother, Eliza W., was a sister of Charles W. Christmas, who settled in Minneapolis; in 1850, and took up one of the first claims on the west side of the river.

At the age of eighteen young Reno entered a store as clerk at Beaver County, Pa., where he remained about five years. He was next employed as clerk on a steamboat plying between Pittsburg and St- Louis, with an occasional trip to New Orleans. He followed the river for the next eleven years, during which time he commanded several boats, and in some of which he was part owner. In 1854 he built and commanded the Fairy Queen, on of the elegant boats then playing the Ohio and Mississippi. In the spring of 1856 he sold his boat and came to Minneapolis, where he arrived May 12. Soon after he purchased a one-third interest in the Christmas property in North Minneapolis, located between Twenty and Twenty-third avenues. I.I. Lewis owned another one-third. The land was plotted and several lots sold that year.

Captain Reno was not satisfied with the plan of having all the freight for St Anthony and Minneapolis put off at the levee at St. Paul, and he was so enthusiastic about bringing the boats to the falls that he got others interested with him and in February, 1857, accompanied by lvory F. Woodman, he visited Pittsburgh and made contracts by which the owners of four boats, Cremona, Harmonia, Orb and Rosalie agreed to make regular trips from Foulton City to the Falls of St Anthony. Warehouses were built on each side of the river, and that season there were fifty-two steamboat arrivals, discharging over ten thousand tons of freight The depression following the financial panic of 1857 had its effect on the river business, and navigation was never afterwards resumed, except by an occasional boat, owing to the obstructions and rapids below the falls.

Captain Reno expects, however, to live to see his dream of 1856 a reality in the near future, by the completion of the two United States government locks and dams now in course of construction between Fort Snelling and the falls. In 1857 Capt. Reno became the third president of the Minneapolis board of trade. The following year he moved to Pittsburg and engaged in river business again, later being in command of a steamboat in the government service. In 1863 he took part, with his steamboat, the Lebanon, in the Yazoo Pass expedition, where in executing a military order at night, he received an injury which compelled him to leave the service. He next moved to Cincinnati, where he remained fourteen years. In 1877 he returned to his old employment, on the river, running the Laura Laura L. Davis, between Cincinnati and Tuscambia, on the Tennessee river. In 1884 he retired from the steamboat business and returned to Minneapolis, where he now resides.

Captain Reno has always been a zealous supporter of the Episcopal Church, and in 1858 was one of the charter members of the Gethsemane Church of Minneapolis. At the present time he is connected with St. Mark's Church. He was married Dec. 21, 1852, to Miss Jane Howard, daughter of William J. Howard of Pittsburg, Pa. The family consists of three sons, William J., Alexander N. and Howard, and one daughter, Virginia H. Reno.

Nathan Richardson was born at Clyde, Wayne County, N. Y., February 24, 1829.

At five years of age his parents removed to Oakland County, Mich., where he was raised on farm. His education was received at Romeo, a branch of the State University, and then he taught school for five terms before coming to Minnesota in 1854. He was married in 1857.

He has been continuously in office since the first election held in Morrison County, April 14, 1856, when he was elected to the office of register of deeds. He was admitted to the bar as an attorney in December, 1876, and has been a member of the State Legislature three terms. In 1870 he took the census of Morrison and Todd counties. He is now judge of probate and mayor of the City of Little Falls, Minn.

Alexander Ramsey was born near Harrisburgh, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, Sept 8, 1815. The Ramseys were of Scotch ancestry, and his mother, Elizabeth Kelker, was of German descent. While a youth he lived with his uncle, attending school, clerking in a store, and working as a carpenter until he was twenty-two years of age, during which time he had taken a partial collegiate course. He then commenced the study of law, and in 1839 was admitted to the bar at Harrisburgh. In 1840 he entered into the presidential campaign, enthusiastically canvassing the state for the Whig candidates, Harrison and Tyler. As a recognition of his services he was made secretary of the state electoral college, and the next winter elected chief clerk of the Legislature.

In 1842, at the age of twenty-seven, he was nominated by the Whigs for Congress, and elected, but as the district had been illegally formed he did not take his seat. The following year, however, he was regularly elected to Congress, and again in 1844, declining the nomination in 1846. He was chairman of the Whig State Committee in 1848, and under his management the party carried the state for Taylor and Fillmore.

Fortunately Mr. Ramsey's services in this campaign were rewarded by President Taylor in appointing him, in March following, the first governor of the newly formed Territory of Minnesota. He arrived at St. Paul May 27, 1849, accompanied by his wife, and on June 1st issued the proclamation announcing officially the organization of the territory. He read his first annual message to the Territorial Legislature, consisting of twenty-seven members, on September 3d, in the dining-room of the Central House, just completed. The old capital building was not ready for occupancy during his term of office.

As ex-officio commissioner of Indian affairs for Minnesota he had the management of some 40,000 Indians, the territory extending to the Missouri River. In 1851 he made a treaty with the Sioux for the cession of over 20,000,000 acres of land.

Governor Ramsey was elected mayor of St. Paul in 1855; in 1857 he was the candidate of the Republican party for governor, but was defeated by a small majority by H. H. Sibley; in 1859 he was elected governor, which office he filled until 1863, when he was elected United States Senator, where he served his state for twelve years; in 1879 he was appointed Secretary of War by President Hayes; in 1882 he was appointed chairman of a board of commissioners to execute the law for the extinguishments of polygamy in Utah; since 1886 he has devoted his time to his financial affairs, and at the present time, at the age of eighty-five, is daily seen on the streets of the city he has seen grow from a population of a few hundred to 165,000.

Governor Ramsey was married in 1848 to Anna Earl Jenks, daughter of Hon. Michael H. Jenks of Pennsylvania. She died at St. Paul in 1884, since which time his only daughter, Mrs. Marion Furness, has presided over his household. Governor Ramsey is a member of the Old Settlers' Society and also of the Territorial Pioneers' Association, and is generally in attendance at their meetings.

Charles T. Rouleau, the subject of the present sketch, was born at St. Paul in 1845. At the age of 18 years he enlisted in Co. A Hatch's Battalion Minnesota Volunteers. In 1863 he was mustered out; in May, 1865, was employed in the lumber business by John S. Prince. He joined the police force in 1872 and served twenty-nine years as a police officer. He was promoted several times, and in 1890 was elevated to the rank of lieutenant by Mayor R. A. Smith. In 1892 he was made captain by Mayor Wright, which position he resigned in August, 1900. Charles T. Rouleau, Sr., came to St. Paul in 1838 in the employ of the American Fur Company, but soon resigned said position and worked for the U. S. Government at Fort Snelling. Capt. Rouleau was married to Exzilda Dufour in 1870. The father of his wife was Joseph Dufour.

P.H. Rahilly was born in Ireland March 8, 1834. Was raised on a farm, and always followed that profession, and owns and cultivates one of the best farms in the state, of twelve hundred acres. He was a member of the legislature in 1874, and of Ihe senate in 1879, and again in the house in 1883, being nominated twice on the state Democratic ticket for state auditor, and once on the People's Party ticket. Was married in 1860 to Catherine Norton. Mr. and Mrs. Rahilly have seven children, of which four are living.

Jonas B. Stebbins as born in Brokline, Vt, February 12, 1827. He came to Minnesota in 1855. He worked at his trade as a carpenter and builder for a short time, and then settled upon the farm in the township of Utica, Winona County, which he still owns. He married Mrs. A. D. Randall in 1861. Four children were born of this union, three of whom survive -- S. J. Stebbins, Morris, Minn., Mrs. F. A. Hancock, Morris, Minn., and W. J. Stebbins, of Waukegan, Ill. The above photograph represents Mr. Stebbins holding a limb of a wealthy apple tree fourteen inches long, with twenty-nine perfect apples. This illustrates what intelligent effort will accomplish in fruit-raising in Minnesota.

Mr. Stebbins now resides in St. Charles, Minn. His wife died four years ago. He is remarkably active for one of his advanced years, and still manages the Utica farm upon which he met with such pronounced success. He has always been active in the public work of his community. He was a member of the school board in District No. 93 from 1865 to 1895, town supervisor in 1878, 1879, and 1880; steward in the Methodist Church from 1858 to 1894, except for one year; was district steward several times; lay delegate to the Methodist conference at Winona and Red Wing, and delegate to the convention at Rochester to locate Hamline University.

Thomas Simpson, a leading member of the bar of Winona, Minn., was born in the north of England, May 31, 1836, the son of Anthony and Elizabeth (Bonson) Simpson, descended from Scotch ancestry.

His maternal grandfather, Robert Bonson, came to America in 1825, and remained for some years, establishing the first blast lead furnaces, both in Galena, Ill., and Dubuque, Iowa.

About 1837 Anthony Simpson brought his family to America, and settled in Dubuque, Iowa. There he engaged in mining, smelting and farming.

His son, Thomas, one of ten children (six of whom are still living), grew up in Dubuque, working on the farm and in the mines and lead furnaces.

In addition to attendance upon public schools, he took a thorough course in civil engineering and surveying, under the special direction of Rev. E. S. Norris, a clergyman of distinction who had at a former period held very prominent and official positions as surveyor and engineer in the State of Maine.

In 1853 Mr. Norris, the preceptor of Mr. Simpson, was given the contract by the United States surveyor general of Dubuque, for running the guide meridians and standard parallels -- the base lines for the public government surveys of land in the Territory of Minnesota. He engaged young Simpson as one of his chief assistants in this work. He soon found that his former pupil, though but seventeen years of age, was entirely competent to take charge of this important work. He turned it over to him, and he carried it on to its completion in 1856. The complete record of this work done by Mr. Simpson will be found in the office of the United States surveyor general at St. Paul.

In December, 1899, Mr. Simpson read before the Minnesota Historical Society, at St Paul, a paper careful prepared by him on "The History of the Early development Land Surveys in Minnesota, West of the Mississippi." The reading of this paper was listened to with intense interest, and was recognized as one of the most valuable contributions to the early history of the state, and has been published by the society.

Shortly after completing his work upon the public surveys in Minnesota in 1855, Mr. Simpson was commissioned by the United States government to go to Green Bay, Wis., to determine the boundaries of the Menominee Indian reservation, with a view of protecting the Indians in their rights as occupants of the reservation.

Since the beginning of the year 1856 Mr. Simpson has been a resident of Winona. For the first two years after locating there he was engaged in real estate and lending money. In 1858 he was admitted to the bar of Winona, and has ever since been in active and successful practice.

Since residing in Winona Mr. Simpson has been made the incumbent of numerous and various public offices. A few days after coming of age he was elected justice of the peace in the city, -- then secretary of the consolidated school districts of the city, three terms as alderman, and the first president of the city board of education. For a period of about twenty years he was a member of the state normal school board in Minnesota, serving during a large portion of that period as president of the board. He resigned this position in 1884.

In 1866 he was elected a member of the state senate, and his record in that position is an honorable one.

Throughout his mature life he has been a communicant of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was superintendent of the Sunday school of the Central Methodist Church of Winona from 1856 to 1892, and has rendered a variety of important official services to the church.

The development of Mr. Simpson's career has been intimately associated with the city and state. When he settled in Minnesota he took at once the attitude of a wide-awake citizen, with the good of his community at heart, and he came rapidly into touch with varied phases of its industry and progress. He has been prominent in promoting she manufacturing interests of Witiona; was among the organizers of the Second National Bank, and for many years served as its president; contributed mainly to the forces which Constructed and put in operation the Winona & Western Railway, and is now secretary and general counsel for that company. He has controlled extensive land and other important interests in the state, and is counted among the substantial and leading men of Southern Minnesota.

Mr. Simpson was married Oct. 30, 1860, to Isabella Margaret Holstein, a Pennsylvania lady. Three sons were the fruit of their union - George T., James K. and Earl. Mrs. Simpson died Dec. 21, 1888.

Isabella Margaret Simpson, wife of Thomas Simpson was born in Lewisburg, Pa., March 25, 1837. Her parents, George and Elizabeth Holstein, were earnest Christians and Methodists. She received her education in her Christian home and at a private academy in her native town, and later at Lewisburg university and the Wesleyan Female College in Wilmington, Delaware.

In October, 1860, she was married to Thomas Simpson and removed to Winona, where she entered upon a life of active beneficence in which every good cause and every human interest had a place.

After the war the State Soldiers' Orphans' Home was located in Winona, and she was appointed director, in which office she was for many years a mother to the innocent participants in the great vicarious sacrifices for liberty and law.

For many years her husband was resident director of the Winona State Normal School, and this brought her into intimate relations with thousands of young people educated there, many of whom found in her the best influence and inspiration of their lives.

Mrs. Simpson had a vigorous intellect, a sound judgment, a firm will, a warm heart, and a controlling conscience, all so educated and disciplined by experience that they gave her wisdom, insight, skill, tact, sympathy, gentleness and force, combined in a character of rare strength and symmetry.

Mrs. Simpson died at her home in Winona Dec. 21, 1888.

Gottlieb Schober was born at Gschwend, Kingdom of Wurtemberg, Germany, Nov. 27, 1834. He landed in New York Feb. 23, 1854, going soon after to Philadelphia, where he worked for a year as a carpenter. The next spring he started west via rail to Galena, at which place he took steamer "Galena" for St. Paul, arriving there May 6, 1855. He made a claim at Maple Grove, on which he remained until 1860, when he went to Waconia, Carver County, to work at his trade in the mill there. In 1861 was employed by Morrison & Prescott in their Farmer's Mill, St. Anthony, as a miller. Worked in a mill at Sparta, Wis., from 1863 to 1865,. when be returned to St. Anthony and formed a partnership with C. Stamwitz, and bought the St. Anthony Mill and operated same until 1870. They then sold out, and bought the People's Mill, which was abandoned in 1875, after which they built the Phoenix Mill. In 1893, the partnership was dissolved and the Phoenix Mill Company incorporated. Mr. Schober has been president of the company since its organization.

Marie ( Goehringer ) Schober was born at Auenstein, Wurtemberg, Germany, Dec. 6, 1840. She was married to Gottlieb Schober Sept. 29, 1866.

David Adams Secombe was a native of Milford, N. H., having been born there May 25, 1827. His parents were David and Lydia (Adams) Secombe. There he passed his childhood, attending public schools of that place. Later he fitted for college at the academies of Pembroke and Hancock. In 1847 he entered Dartmouth College. Leaving college, he went to Manchester, N. H., and studied law with Hon. Daniel Clark, ex-United States senator. At the expiration of his studies he concluded the West was the only place for him, and emigrated to this land of promise in June, 1851. In July, 1852, he was admitted to the bar, and from that time until his death, which occurred March 18, 1892, he followed his profession continuously. He was elected a member of the State Constitutional Convention, which met at St. Paul in 1857, and was a leading member of the first legislature of Minnesota. Here he prepared the constitutional amendment limiting the legislative session to sixty days. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention, which nominated the immortal Lincoln, at Chicago, in 1860. In 1871-2 he was county attorney of Hennepin County. The Hennepin County Bar Association, in its tribute of respect on the death of Mr. Secombe, said: "He stood among the brightest and ablest lawyers of this state. His integrity was never questioned. He was kind and courteous toward his brethren. In the statement of a legal proposition, or of the facts in a case, he was a master not surpassed by any one in his profession. His arguments were always clear, concise and logical. He was always self-reliant, self-possessed, and impressed one as having a wonderful amount of reserve power. He was dignified, polite and manly under all circumstances, never forgetting he was a true gentleman."

Charlotte A. Eastman was born and passed her early childhood in Conway, N. H. In September, 1854, in company with her brother, W. W. Eastman of this city, she came to St. Anthony, arriving at St. Paul from Galena on the steamer War Eagle. She was married Feb. 27, 1855, at the home of another brother, John W. Eastman, by judge Lardner Bostwick, then a justice of the peace, to David Adams Secombe. A large number of the early settlers were present at the ceremony, which was one of the first weddings of the community. Mrs. Secombe has been a resident continuously of that part of the city which was then St. Anthony, residing at present on Nicollet Island.

Simon Peter Snyder was born on April 14, 1826, in Somerset, Pa. His grandfather came from Germany near Hamburg, and settled in Maryland, afterwards moving to Pennsylvania, where he obtained title to one-half of the land upon which Somerset was established. The ground upon which the public school house and the court house and the Lutheran church were built, was donated, one-half, by the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. Mr. Snyder is the son of John A. Snyder and Elizabeth Shaffer, and was the third of twelve children, six boys and six girls, whose mother lived to see them all married. Of this family there are still living three boys and four girls. He obtained a common school education, and, at the age of fourteen, entered the general store of his uncle and served three years. He then took charge of his uncle's store and Berkely Mills, and at the end of two years bought the store, which he owned and ran for four years. In 1850 he sold out and drove by team by way of Wheeling and Columbus, to Springfield, O., and thence to Peoria, Ill.. His uncle, John L. Snyder, was located in Springfield . When Snyder reached Peoria, a letter awaited him from his uncle inviting him to return to Springfield and buy him out. Mr. Snyder at once returned by team from Peoria to Springfield, bought out his uncle, who was in the general merchandise business, and continued in the business until 1855, when he again sold out and came to Minneapolis, arriving in May, 1855.

He formed a partnership with W. K. MacFarland for the purpose of locating lands. Until the fail of the year he officed with O. Curtis on Main street, St. Anthony, about where the Pillsbury A Mill now stands. In September 1855, Synder and MacFarland built an office on Bridge Square, directly across the street from the Pauly House, and continued their land business and opened the first banking house in Minneapolis. In 1857 Mr. Levi L. Cook joined the firm, which was known as Snyder, MacFarland & Cook.

In 1855 Mr. Snyder bought eighty acres of land, through which Tenth street South now passes, and which is cut short by way of Nicollet avenue. This he platted as "Snyder's First Addition to Minneapolis." The cost was $100 an acre. The tract is today worth several millions.

He was treasurer of the Minnesota Agricultural Society in the years 1856, 1857 and 1858. The first fair of this association was held on the ground where the First Baptist Church and the Public Library Building now stand.

During the Indian Outbreak in 1862, Mr. Snyder and Anson Northrup organized a volunteer company of one hundred and forty men to go to the relief of New Ulm and Fort Ridgley. Each man furnished his horse and equipment. The company reported to General Sibley who was commander-in-chief. Anson Northrup was made captain and Mr. Snyder was first lieutenant. The company proceeded to St. Peter where all companies were to meet, and being detained there two days, and becoming restless, Captain Northrup and Lieutenant Snyder waited in person on General Sibley, who had then about 1,400 armed men at St. Peter, and asked leave to proceed with their company at once in advance of the general movement. General Sibley said:

"I cannot grant you the privilege, but if you want to go you will have to do so at your own peril " Upon reporting to the company it was decided to proceed at once. The men mounted their horses and made a midnight ride, arriving safely at the fort at sunrise next morning to the joy of the small garrison. This company reached Fort Ridgley a day ahead of the main column and was the first to give relief.

Mr. Snyder has lived continuously in Minneapolis since May, 1855, and still enjoys good health, and resides at 410 Tenth street South. In 1862 Mr. Snyder established the first auction store in the City of Minneapolis, and in 1876 he was the first to build and establish a large warehouse for the storage of freight left over time with the railroads.

Colonel Stevens, in his "Personal Recollections of Minnesota," On page 27, says:

"Probably, to Messrs. Snyder and MacFarland are the citizens of Minneapolis more indebted than to any one else for the rapid progress in the early industries on the west side of the falls."

Mary Ramsay Snyder, wife of Simon Peter Snyder, was born in Springfield, Ohio, on Feb. 21, 1832. Her grandfather came from Ireland, and was considered a well educated man, being well versed in Latin. Her father was Alexander Ramsay. Her mother came from Kentucky, and was a Stephenson, a cousin of the inventor Stephenson. She was one of nine children, four of whom still survive. Mrs. Snyder is a member of the Episcopal Church, and has always been active in good works. Mr. and Mrs. Snyder have three children, Frank C., Fred B. and Mary C. There are two grandchildren, John Pillsbury and Mary Stuart.

Mrs. Snyder was married in 1856, and came to Minneapolis in the same year. Her first home on the west side of the river was the first frame house built on that side of the river by Colonel Stevens. This house was situated where the Union station now stands, and in those days was within easy sound of the roar of the St. Anthony falls. This building has since been placed in Minnehaha Park. Frank and Fred were both born in the old Stevens house, where the family lived until 1860.

Owen Thomas Swett was born Sept 27, 1831, at Limerick, York County, Maine. He came to St Anthony April 30, 1856, and for the first six months drove the meat wagon of Stimson & Hayes, who at that time supplied nearly all of the families of St. Anthony and Minneapolis, there being only one other meat market, which was located in upper town. In the fall of 1856 Mr. Swett, in partnership with E. B. West, went to Iowa and Illinois and bought a drove of two hundred hogs, and was returning with them on the steamboat, when the cold weather caused the captain of the boat to unload his cargo on the last day of October at Point Douglas, and they were compelled to drive the hogs in from that point, and feed them with corn, costing 1.10 per bushel, for several weeks, until real freezing weather. Under the circumstances the venture was not a financial success. On the same trip Mr. Swett purchased about 1,200 pounds of butter, not gilt-edge quality, as his customers could testify, which he sold during the winter at 32 cents per pound. In January, 1857, he made a trip to Galena and Dubuque, where he purchased a team of horses and load of provisions. It was not a pleasure trip, as the snow was two to three feet deep on the sometimes trackless prairies, with thermometer 30 to 35 degrees below zero for thirty days. On his return from this trip he took a load of passengers, mostly merchants going east to buy goods, from St. Anthony to Muscada, eighty miles east of La Crosse, that being then the nearest railroad point. At that time, however, all goods from the east were shipped via Dunleith, as the La Crosse Railroad was not completed until late that year.

In the spring of 1857 Mr. Swett went into the grain, feed and provision business, and in the fall of the same year put in a stock of dry goods and groceries, being located on lower Main street, near where the Pillsbury A mill now stands. Mr. Swett is one of the few old time merchants who has continued in the same business on the east side until the present time. Until 1863 Erastus Hayes was a partner, since which time he conducted the business alone until last year, when his son became a partner. Mr. Strau was also a partner for a short time at first. Mr. Swett now has the largest dry goods store on the east side, having lately moved into the new Chute block, his third move in forty-three years.

Mr. Sweet was married to Miss Sarah Hayes at St. Anthony, April 6, 1859.

Sarah Hayes Swett, wife of Owen T. Swett, was born at Limerick, York County, Maine, January 7, 1828. She came to St. Anthony May 10, 1857, after a delay of three days at the foot of Lake Pepin for the ice to break up, the boat being the first one to come through that spring.

She was married to Mr. Swett April 6, 1859, and they have lived at the corner of Fourth street and Seventh avenue southeast for nearly forty years.

Her father was John C. Hayes of Limerick, Maine. Their children are Ellar, wife of Geo. T. Huey and Arthur H. Swett, in business with his father in Minneapolis.

John Albert Schlener was born in Philadelphia Feb. 24, 1856, his parents removing to St. Anthony the following year. John A. Schlener, his father, and his mother Bertha (Sproesser) Schlener, were of German descent and members of the Lutheran church. As a boy young Schlener assisted his father in his bakery and confectionary store, and attended public schools of St. Anthony and the commercial school of Barnard & Carson until he was twelve years of age.

Soon after he obtained a position as deputy toll collector for the suspension bridge, then belonging to the county, where he remained until the expiration of the charter.

When sixteen years of age he entered the book and stationery store of Wister, Wales & Co. as a clerk. When the firm of Bean, Wales & Co. was organized he was given a one-third interest in the business, and after the retirement of Mr. Wales he continued in the business with his successors, Kirkbride & Whitehall, until 1884 since which time he has been successfully conducting the same business for himself on Nicollet avenue.

Mr. Schlener joined the Masons early in life, and has become one of the most prominent members of the order in the city, having passed successively through the various bodies.

In 1892 he was married to Grace Holbrock of Lockport, N. Y. He has held several positions of trust, and in 1896 was elected a member of the board of education of the city of Minneapolis, and is a member at the present time.

In 1900 be was a candidate for nomination for mayor by the Republican party, but was defeated by A. A. Ames.

Bertha ( Sproesser ) Schlener was born at Stuttgart, Germany, Dec. 3, 1831. She came to the United States with relatives in 1852, locating at Philadelphia. She was married to John A. Schlener at Philadelphia shortly thereafter, coming with her husband to St. Anthony early in the spring of 1857. Here her husband engaged in bakery and confectionery business and conducted the same until his death, in 1872. Mrs. Schiener resides with her son, John A. Schlener, on Nicollet Island.

R. R. Smith was born in Middlesex County, New Jersey, near New Brunswick, March 24, 1826. Worked on his father's farm until nearly twenty-two years of age, when he was married to Miss Julia A. Stelle. He became a member of the Baptist Church when sixteen years of age. After conducting a farm of their own for ten years they moved to Minneapolis, with two children, in 1857, and engaged in the grocery business. In 1864 they moved to Faribault, where Mr. Smith carried on a retail lumber business until 1879. The family then moved to Worthington, Nobles County, Minnesota, where Mr. Smith now resides.

In August, 1862, while living at Minneapolis, he volunteered to go under Capt. Anson Northrup to subdue the Indian outbreak in the Minnesota Valley and relieve Fort Ridgley, being one of the three hundred cavalry who took the hazardous midnight ride from St. Peter to Fort Ridgley. They arrived at the fort at sunrise in safety, where they found the store building still burning, but the Indians had fled.

Mr. Smith has been engaged in farming in Nobles County for the past twenty-two years. He is now hale and hearty and active and able to do a day's work six times a week. He prizes highly a letter written by his grandfather to his parents from Valley Forge in 1777.

He has nine grandchildren. For further account of them and of his three children see account of his wife, Julia A. Smith herewith.

Julia A. ( Stelle ) Smith was born in Middlesex County, New Jersey, in 1830, and married to R. R. Smith in 1848. Two years later she joined the Baptist Church, of which her husband was a member. She died January 31, 1900.

Their two oldest children, Alice, now Mrs. George Griggs, and Milton S. Smith, were born in New Jersey; also since arrival in Minnesota was born Bessie E. Smith, now Mrs. H.J. Vosburgh of Beaver Dam, Wis. Mrs. George Griggs resides in St. Paul.

Milton S. Smith was married in 1874 to Miss Flora E. Ingram of Faribault, and moved to Worthington in 1879. She died August 14, 1886, leaving three sons.

Stelle S. Smith, the oldest, now a practicing attorney at law in Minneapolis, and secretary to J. H. Thornpson for seven years past, was born in Faribault December 30, 1875. Came to Minneapolis in 1894.

Robert R. Smith, also of Minneapolis, was born July 24, 1880. Came to Minneapolis in 1898.

Byron E. Smith, the youngest, is in Beaver Dam, Wis., attending college.

The children of Mrs. George Griggs are Franklin H., George, Jr., Helen M. and Chester H. Frank H. is assistant city attorney of St. Paul. Mrs. Vosburgh has two children, Marion and Evelyn.

Charles Seccomb came to St. Anthony in 1850 and commenced his labors as a home missionary. On Nov. 16, 1851, he organized the First Congregational Church of St. Anthony, with twelve members. He was installed as pastor July 30, 1854, and his ministry closed June 10, 1866, after fifteen years of self denying and faithful work for his church.

Services of the society were held for two years in the school building of the university, near the present site of the East Side High School, until the first church building was erected on the corner of Central avenue and Fourth street northeast, in 1853, and dedicated Feb. 15, 1854. This was the first Congregational church dedicated in Minnesota, and was the home of the church for twenty-one years.

Rev. Seccomb was very emphatic in his denunciation of the sin of intemperance, and the curse of slavery, and during the civil-war made some strong appeals for the support and success of the Union cause.

The older attendants of the church will recollect the unique choir during the 50's, consisting of Thos. Hale Williams, Deacon Peabody and wife and the Morrison sisters, with Mr. Piddington and his big bass viol.

Mr. Seccomb was pastor of the Congregational Church at Springfield, S. D., from 1881to 1899, when he resigned on account of failing health, and died there March 4, 1900, at the age of eighty-three years, leaving two sons and two daughters.

Carl C. Schultz was born near Berlin, Germany, March 6, 1829. Came to St. Anthony Falls, Minnesota, from Chicago, May 10, 1855. Landed in St. Paul from the steamboat War Eagle, and came to St Anthony to get work in the sash and door factory of Orrin Rogers. Here he remained for three years and then spent one year at St. Cloud, when he came back to St. Anthony. The grasshoppers came that year, and Mr. Schultz thought the country was ruined, so he returned to Chicago and went into the grocery business, where he remained for seven years. He then returned to Minnesota very well satisfied to remain. He was engaged in the wholesale and retail boot and shoe business in Minneapolis from 1865 to 1877; real estate and insurance business from 1877 to 1892, and at present time in the lumber business. He was married to Augusta Marian Hagar, May 15, 1862.

Halvor Steenerson was born June 30, 1852, in Dane County, Wisconsin. His parents moved to Houston County, Minnesota, in 1853, and here on a farm he grew up.

He attended common and high schools and taught school. In 1875 he began to study law in a law office in Austin, Minn., and in 1877 and 1878 attended Union College of Law at Chicago, Ill. In June, 1878, was admitted to practice law in the supreme court of Illinois, but returned to Minnesota in the fall of same year and began practice of his profession at Lounsboro, Minn. In spring of 1880 moved to Crookston, Minn., where he has since resided. He has been county and city attorney and state senator. Is a very successful lawyer and prominent in his profession. A Republican in politics.

Andrew Lyte Shearer was born April 14, 1823, in Venango Township, Crawford County, Pa. He was one of a family of ten children who were raise on the farm of their father, John Shearer, who settled thereon in A. D. 1796. Andrew came to Minnesota via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in 1848, settling in St. Paul, which was his home at the time of his death, Oct. 29, 1869. He was a member of the Old Settlers' Association. On Nov. 23, 1850, he married Theresa E. Hartibease of St. Paul, who died Aug. 28, 1882, at St. Paul. Eight children were born to them, of whom but one survives, Susan C. Shearer, now residing in Pine City, Minn.

Herman Trott was born in Hanover, Germany Feb. 25, 1830. He was educated for commercial pursuits; came to Minnesota in 1856; was chairman of the board of county commissioners who organized Pine County in 1857; was the first justice of the peace of said county; was appointed lieutenant colonel of the state militia by Governor Sibley; moved to St. Paul in 1863, and was appointed secretary of the land department of the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company, and advanced to land commissioner in 1868, and treasurer of same company in 1870. Was elected to the legislature in 1866. He was a member of the St. Paul school board 1869-70-71; was also a member of the board of aldermen of St Paul in 1880-1881; was appointed general land agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad Company by Henry Villard in 1883 and served three years.

He moved to the State of Washington in 1890, and returned to St. Paul in August, 1899.

Mr. Trott was married October, 1864 to Miss Ann Eliza Goettel.

Ann Eliza ( Goettel ) Trott was born at Toledo, Ohio, on July 18, 1837; came to Minnesota in 1858 and located in St. Paul. She was married to Herman Trott in October, 1864. She lived at Fort Snelling with her uncle, Col. Wm. Crooks, during the Sioux Indian War, and witnessed the imprisonment of 1,800 captured Indians. Mr. and Mrs. Trott have three sons and six daughters.

Joseph Hayes Thompson was born in South Berwick, Maine, Aug. 17, 1834. His father. Daniel G. Thompson, was a farmer, and moved to, North, Yarmouth, Maine, in 1844. Here young Thompson received the privileges the country school afforded at that time, working on the farm part of the time, until he was fifteen years of age. He then entered a store as clerk, where he was employed for one year, when he commenced to learn the tailors' trade with Nathaniel Osgood at North Brighton, Maine, attending the Village Academy the next winter. When nineteen years old, he went to Augusta, Maine, and engaged with Richard Bosworth as clerk and cutter, continuing in this business for three years. In the winter he decided to go west, and he finally landed at Minneapolis in February, 1857, and immediately opened a tailor shop, which he has kept open for over forty-four years. during all of which time he has conducted a large and profitable business, for many years carrying a stock of clothing, furnishing goods, etc., additional to his tailoring department.

He was the first, and for several years the only, express agent in Minneapolis, and later was the first to sell steamboat and railroad tickets to the East. In August, 1862, he volunteered for the relief of Fort Ridgley, joining Anson Northrup's company.

Mr. Thompson was supervisor of the town of Minneapolis for several years, and later alderman of the city.

He has always been prominent in Masonic circles, and for more than twenty years has been grand treasurer of the order in Minnesota. He has been actively engaged in managing the various lines of his extensive business until the last few months, when he went south, hoping the change of climate would restore him to his former health. He returned to his home a few weeks ago, and his many friends will be pained to learn that his recovery is not considered certain by his physicians. He was married to Miss Helen Gould, Sept. 18, 1860.

Ellen Maria ( Gould ) Thompson was born at Conway Centre, N. H., Dec. 9, 1842. She was educated at Chelsea, Mass., and in the spring of 1857 came west, arriving at Minneapolis May 1st. Miss Gould was married to J. H. Thompson Sept. 18, 1860. Three children have been born to them - Nellie H., who died in 1893; William Gould, who died Oct. 28, 1989, at the age of 32, and ,one daughter, now Mrs. Edwin P. Capen of Minneapolis.

Henry Pratt Upham was born in Millbury, Mass., March 19, 1857, and located in St. Paul, where he has been engaged in the banking business nearly all the time since he came. He was elected president of the First National Bank in 1880, and has filled that position up to the present time, April, 1901. He married Miss Evelyn Gertrude Burbank, Sept. 23, 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Upham have three children, John Phineas Upham, Mrs. John P. Harris of Chicago, Ill., and Mrs. Horace E. Bigelow of St. Paul.

Samuel R. VanSant was born in Rock Island, Ill., May 11, 1844. He was educated at Knox College, Galesburg. He made his first Visit to Minnesota in 1857, as a steamboat employee, and has been doing business as an employee and owner ever since.

He was married to Miss Ruth Hall Dec. 7, 1868. He removed to Winona in 1883, since which time he has been one of the most active men in the state. He served three years in the army during the War of the Rebellion. Was Department Commander G. A. R. in 1895. Was a member of the legislature in 1892-5, and is now governor of the state. He is a splendid type of American manhood, having commenced at the lowest round of the ladder and rising by his own industry to the highest position in our magnificent North Star State.

Francis C. VanHoesen was born in town of Tully, Onandago County, New York, Jan. 8, 1839. He was educated in common schools and Cazenovia Seminary in his native state. He is a graduate of the law department Michigan University of 1864. He came to Minnesota from Galena on Steamer Galena, Nov. 9, 1854. Was county attorney Douglas County 1866-7, and clerk of the district court 1868-72. First president of the village of Alexandria. Was member house of representatives 1872; also in 1881-82. Was a member of the state senate, Minnesota, 1883 and 1885. Was married to Mary Gunderson Aug. 2, 1879. Has been in banking business since 1879.

John A. Vanstrum was born in the Province of Halland, Sweden, Nov. 5, 1838. Came to Minnesota on the Steamer Golden Era from Dunleith, Ill. First located in Red Wing, Goodhue County, of which town he was a resident at the breaking out of the Civil War. He assisted the late Col. H. Mattson in recruiting Company D, Third Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered into the same in October, 1861, and was appointed sergeant of Company D. Was promoted to second lieutenant March 30, 1862, first lieutenant May 30, 1862, and captain Company D Aug. 2, 1862. Re-enlisted with same company as veteran January, 1864. Promoted major of Third Regiment May 25, 1865. Was discharged with regiment at Fort Snelling Sept. 17, 1865. Has been a resident of Kittson County since January, 1879. Was sheriff of said county from its organization, April 8, 1879, to Jan. 8, 1889, and is the present register of deeds of said county, which office he has held since the fall of 1891. Mr. Vanstrum stands high among his fellow citizens, being a man of integrity and enterprise.

William Harlan Varner was born in Clinton county, Ohio, May 6, 1829. He was educated at Harveyeburgh, Ohio, and was married to Miss Louisa Ellen Dougherty June 21, 1850. In the fall of 1854 they came west, arriving at Minneapolis September 12th. Mr. Varner is a mason and plasterer, and did work on the Stevens house soon after his arrival at Minneapolis, and later helped lay the foundation of the Nicollet House, besides doing work on many other buildings in the city. He helped organize the first school district in the territory in which Golden Valley Village, Hennepin County, is now located. He was a director for many years. He has filled the office of justice of the peace most of the time since 1860, an office which he holds at the present time.

Louisa Ellen ( Dougherty ) Varner was born in Warren County, Ohio, March 31, 1833. She was married to W. D. Varner June 21, 1850 and came west with him in the fall of 1854. They have three sons and two daughters.

William W. Wales was born in Iredell County, North Carolina, March 4, 1818. Removed to Greensboro, Indiana, in 1845. Was school teacher and afterwards druggist. In 1848 he married Katherine Bundy and came to Minnesota in 1851, locating at St. Anthony. He engaged in the book and stationary business which he conducted successfully for several years. In December, Mr. Wales, John H. Stevens, A. E. Ames, A. N. Hoyt, N. E. Stoddard and O. H. Kelly signed the call for the meeting held at St. Paul January 4, 1854, at which the Minnesota Agricultural Society was organized.

In 1857, Mr. Wales was elected mayor of St. Anthony, being the third mayor of the city and succeeding Alvaren Allen. In 1865 he was elected mayor for the second time. In January, 1857, he took his seat in the territorial legislature as the member of the Counsel from the Third Council District, which was the "precinct of the Falls of St. Anthony." In 1859 he was elected city clerk, which office he held continuously until August, 1863, when he was appointed postmaster of St. Anthony by President Lincoln, succeeding David Heaton. Mr. Wales was a member of the school board of St. Anthony for many years.

In all of the public positions to which he was elected or appointed he gave perfect satisfaction to the people of the city.

Since 1884 Mr. Wales has been engaged in missionary work, much of the time among the mountaineers of his native state, in accordance with cherished plans of his early life. Now, in his eighty-fourth year, he is in good health and quite active, residing at Asheville, North Carolina.

Sebastian Wimmer was born in Bavaria, Germany, Jan. 5, 1831. Emigrated to the United States in 1851, and came to Minnesota in 1856 with his family. He is a civil engineer and has practiced his profession in various parts of the Northwest. He has lived at St. Paul, and at Faribault, Rice County; also at St Cloud, Stearns county. In the latter county he owned a large tract of land on which he opened a stock farm, which is maintained at the present time in charge of a relative. Mr. Wimmer lived in St. Paul in 1858-9. In the latter year his friends made an unsuccessful effort to elect him city engineer. About this time he located one of the land grant roads, known as the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Railroad, and worked on the same until financial troubles made it impossible to do business.

Mr. Wimmer married Miss Lavinia Blakely about 1856. He and his family now live in St. Mary's, Elk County, Pa., but expect to return to Minnesota in the near future, when many old friends will give him a hearty welcome.

Henry T. Welles. In the foremost rank of Minnesota's Pioneers, for no one has done more for the city and state of his adoption, stands Henry T. Welles.

Of old Puritan stock, his family was long prominent in affairs of church and state in both old and new England.

Born in Glastonbury, Connecticut, April 3, 1821, he was well educated, first in the town schools and later in Trinity College, from which he received his degree of A. B. in 1834. Studying law, he was admitted to the bar of Hartford County in 1845, and in 1850 was elected a member of the state legislature.

In 1853 he removed to St. Anthony and forming a partnership almost immediately with Mr. Franklin Steele, engaged in the lumber business, operating seven of the eight saws then at St. Anthony. In 1855 he was elected the first mayor of St. Anthony, and later was president of the first town council of Minneapolis. The first bridge across the Mississippi was built at Nicollet Island by Messrs. Welles and Steele, proprietors of the Minneapolis Bridge Company.

Probably the two most important services which Mr. Welles rendered his towns people during his long and useful life were his efforts towards the preservation of the falls and his conception of and co-operation in building the Minneapolis and Duluth and the Minneapolis and St. Louis railways.

Mr. Welles was prominent in financial institutions, assisted in organizing the Farmers' and Mechanics' and the Northwestern National banks, of which latter be was president for a number of years. Mr. Welles was a life-long consistent member of the Episcopal church, and gave most generously of his abundance to that as well as other denominations.

His death occurred in Minneapolis, March 4, 1898. Of winning manners and noble character of unfailing loyalty, to his adopted city, wise and generous in his philanthropy, Mr. Welles was beloved by his friends and honored and revered by his fellow-citizens.

Jerusha Lord Welles, widow of Henry T. Welles, was born in Bolton, Connecticut, March 9, 1833. Her father, Joseph Lord, was a direct descendant in the sixth generation of John Haynes, first governor of Connecticut, and in the seventh generation of Thomas Lord, one of the original proprietors of Hartford, who emigrated to the colonies in 1653, while Daniel, her grandfather, served in the War of the Revolution.

While still a child Miss Lord removed with her family to Glastonbury, where she lived until her marriage to Mr. Welles, which occurred May 3, 1853. Starting westward, Mr. Welles reached St. Anthony June 13th, Mrs. Welles stopping to visit relatives in Illinois, not joining him until August 1, 1853.

While residing on the east side Mr. and Mrs. Welles were affiliated with Holy Trinity church, then on their removal to the west side with Gethsemane and finally with St. Mark's parishes. Like her husband a loyal and devoted member of the church, generous spirited and energetic by nature, Mrs. Welles has been zealous and untiring in all good works, and many have been the recipients of her wise charity.

William Drew Washburn was born at Livermore, Me., Jan. 14, 1831. His ancestors were of Puritan stock, settling in Duxbury, Mass., in the early colonial period. He was the youngest member of the large Washburn family which was so prominent for half a century in the affairs of several states, as well as at the national capitol. He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1854 and entered the law office of his brother Israel, afterwards studying law with Hon. J. A. Peters at Bangor. He came to Minneapolis May 1, 1857, and opened a law office but did not devote his entire time to his profession. In the fall of 1857 he was appointed secretary and agent of the Minneapolis Mill Company, then building the first dam on the west side of the river, which position he held for several years. In 1861 he was appointed surveyor general of Minnesota by President Lincoln, and the next four years his official duties required his presence at St. Paul. During this time be purchased, in association with others, large amounts of pine lands, and later erected saw mills and carried on for many years an extensive lumber business both at Minneapolis and Anoka. He was also engaged in the manufacture of flour in Minneapolis, and in 1880 built a large flouting mill at Anoka, which he operated until 1889 when the property was transferred to the Pillsbury-Washburn Milling Company, in which he has since been a stockholder and director.

Mr. Washburn was elected to congress in 1878 and re-elected in 1880, and again in 1882, serving six consecutive years. In 1889 he was elected United States Senator for the term of six years. During his term in congress, both in the house and senate, he represented his state faithfully and ably. He was largely instrumental in enlisting men and capital in building the Minneapolis & St. Louis, the Minneapolis & Duluth, and the "Soo" railways, and to his persistence in pushing these roads to completion is the City of Minneapolis indebted for much of its prosperity.

His beautiful home at "Fair Oaks" is one of the finest in the Northwest.

He was married to Miss Lizzie Muzzy, daughter of Franklin Muzzy of Bangor, Me., April 19, 1859.

Eugene M. Wilson was born in Morgantown, Va. Dec. 25, 1833. His father, Edgar C. Wilson, and his grandfather, Thomas Wilson, were members of congress from Virginia, and his ancestry on both maternal and paternal sides were patriots and soldiers of the Revolutionary War. Mr. Wilson graduated from Jefferson College at the age of eighteen, and was admitted to the bar when twenty-one years of age. In 1856 he came to Minnesota, first settling at Winona, where he formed a law partnership with William Mitchell, afterwards justice oi state supreme court. In 1857 he was appointed United States district attorney for Minnesota by President Buchanan, and moved to Minneapolis.

In 1861 he formed a law partnership with W. W. McNair, who afterwards became his brother-in-law. In 1862 he was commissioned captain of Company A, of the First Minnesota Cavalry, serving for one year on the northern frontier. While in this service he made the acquaintance of Elizabeth Kimball, only daughter of Col. William Kimball of St. Anthony, then quartermaster for northwestern military posts, to whom he was married Sept. 6, 1865.

In 1868 Captain Wilson, who was always a staunch Democrat, was elected to congress in a strong Republican district, owing to the split in the Republican party, and his own popularity, Ignatius Donnelly and C. C. Andrews being the two Republican candidates. At the end of his term in congress he returned to the law practice, and was for many years one of the foremost lawyers of the state. In 1872, when the cities of St. Anthony and Minneapolis were united, he was elected the first mayor of the new municipality, being re-elected in 1874 for another term of two years. In 1878 and again in 1880 he was elected state senator from Hennepin County. In 1888 he was the candidate of his party for governor, being defeated by W. R. Merriam. When the park system of Minneapolis was established he became a member of the park commission, a position he held until his death. For many years Captain Wilson was interested as a partner in the ownership of pine lands and in the lumber business in Northern Minnesota. In 1889, owing to failing health, accompanied by his wife and daughters, he started for Nassau, in the Bahamas, hoping the change of climate would restore him to health. It was at this place he died, on April 10, 1890, leaving a widow and three daughters. The family have since occupied the elegant home he built for them on Hawthorne avenue a few years before his death.

Wilford L. Wilson was born in 1815 in Cazenovia, N. Y. Educated at Hamilton College and Wesleyan University, finally graduating from the theological department of Yale College in 1842. For nearly fourteen years he was engaged mostly in mercantile pursuits in Newport, N. Y., but in 1856 left there with his family for St. Paul.

At Dunleith he boarded the ill-fated steamer Lady Franklin on her final trip, the boat sinking at Beef Slough, though the passengers were rescued by the steamer Falls City, and safely landed at St. Paul on Oct.21st.

Except seven years residence in Rose Township on a farm, where Hamline University now stands, he has resided in St. Paul continuously.

Mr. Wilson was one of the early pioneers in the cause of human freedom, and from his youth an earnest advocate in the cause of temperance. As an active worker in the Republican party since its organization, he has held many positions of responsibility and been much in public life.

He has been, and still is, an elder in the Presbyterian Church in St. Paul, and in all particulars of church work he is actively interested, and discharges his duties zealously and efficiently.

Always a man of practical deeds and substantial works for nearly half a century in this city, he has devoted himself to many charitable movements and enterprises, and has earnestly cooperated with the friends of these various organizations in their manifold plans and efforts.

In his attractive home at 503 Rondo street, Mr. Wilson, now 86 years of age, is passing in peace and contentment the evening of his well spent life.

Charles Stuart Wilson was born in Montreal, March 13, 1857; came to Minnesota in 1856 on the steamboat Lady Franklyn, which boat sank at Beef Slough this trip. All the passengers were transferred to steamer Falls City. No lives were lost, but much personal baggage and freight was lost, as the Lady Franklyn was soon a total wreck. Mr. Wilson is now general dealer for the sale of the celebrated Oxydonor for the prevention and cure of disease, St. Paul, April 10, 1901.

George C. Whitcomb and wife. One of the most important events in the early settlement of Minnesota was the Indian massacre of 1862, and among settlers of that date perhaps none figured more prominently therewith than Captain George C. Whitcomb and wife. The story of their losses, their valor and their active devotion to duty would, if written in full, make an interesting and thrilling chapter in the history of the state. The following is from General C. A. Grant's biographical sketch:

George C. Whitcomb was born in Bolton, Vt., Dec. 28, 1821.

Anna D. Felch was born in Dedham, Mass., Jan. 17, 1819.

They were married in Cambridge, Vt., Nov. 4, 1847. Both descended from eminent and patriotic ancestors. Her father was a chaplain in the United States navy, and was with Capt. Bainbridge on board the Constitution when he fought and captured the British ship Java in the War of 1812.

They came to Minnesota in June, 1856, first locating at St. Anthony and settled later on a homestead in Meeker County. In 1862 they had a young family, an excellent farm, nearly all in cultivation, and all fenced in, and some of the best buildings in the county, a fine stock of cattle and other animals. Forest City county was the county seat and Mr. Whitcomb was the county treasurer.

He raised a company of 103 men intending to take them to Fort Snelling to join a regiment being raised there for service in the civil war. On the night of Aug. 16, 1862, there appeared on his premises seven Indians, all armed and with hostile intent. He gave them food, smoked the pipe of peace, and assured them that their supplies were on the way, and justice would be done them. The next day they left, taking the trail for the agency. He soon heard at Forest City that the Indians had murdered two families at Acton, seven miles from his home. He sent men to learn the facts and they returned about one o'clock that night and confirmed the reports. By that time the settlers fleeing from the Indians, were coming into Forest City in great numbers. They came with teams and on foot, men, women and children, driving their cattle before them, and bringing such property as they could. It was evident that the country south, west and north was being abandoned, and that Forest City was a center to which many were tending. Capt. Whitcomb immediately started for St. Paul to see the governor and obtain means to defense. He drove to Carver, arriving before sundown that day. He found no means of transportation from there, except a small steamer with an unwilling captain. He took forcible possession and compelled the men in charge to run to St. Paul with all possible speed. Arriving at St. Paul the governor commissioned him as captain, provided him with arms and ammunition, and directed him to return and use his company in checking the stampede and defending the settlers. His steamer and another, loaded with 100 muskets, 5,000 cartridges and other supplies, soon started up the river for Shakopee, where he impressed into the service horses and wagons, loaded them with the supplies and started for the frontier. At Hutchinson he left twenty-five muskets and 1,000 cartridges to be used in the defense against the Indians, and pressed on to Forest City, arriving there in the least time possible. Here he reorganized the company, issued his remaining arms and ammunition, and with a part of his company started out into what had then become the Indian country. He found death and destruction everywhere, but no Indians. He was gone three days and buried twenty-seven dead bodies of white settlers. Upon his return to Forest City be constructed a stockade and prepared for defense. Two days later he was attacked by the Indians, 200 strong. They were repulsed with loss. Our loss was eight men wounded. Mrs. Whitcomb remained at Forest City, caring for the sick and wounded, and when all the other women sought safety elsewhere.

Captain Whitcomb remained with his company in active service against the Indians until late in the fall, when the company was discharged. On returning to his farm he found the work of destruction had been complete. The buildings and fences had all been burned, and the cattle killed or driven off. The loss amounted to several thousands of dollars - a serious loss to an early settler - it being the accumulation of years of labor and economy.

The strange and pathetic part of it is: Capt. Whitcomb has never received pay for his losses. By his prompt and effective action he saved many valuable lives and several hundred thousands of dollars to the state. Others have received pay for losses, while he has not received a dollar. When the commission was in the state collecting evidence and adjusting losses he was in the service of the government watching and defending the frontier against raids and massacres. At the time of the outbreak there was no available force to resist the Indians, protect the settlers and check the stampede, except Capt. Whitcomb and his gallant company. Had the outbreak been delayed until he and his company had gone to the war, there would probably have not been left a living white settler in most of the country west of the Twin Cities. As it was the company would have been of but little avail had it not been for the prompt action in procuring arms and ammunition.

Early in 1863 Captain Whitcomb raised another company, which was mustered into the United States service and became Company B of Hatches' Battalion. He remained in the service with this company until 1866, when they were honorably discharged. During this service he guarded the frontier from Fort Abercrombie to Fort Pembina, wintering one winter at Pembina. He had charge of seven "cantonments," to-wit: Georgetown' Twin Lake Station, Old Crossing, Pomme de Terre, Chippewa, Alexandria and Sauk Center.

Capt. Whitcomb and his estimable wife received their friends at their golden wedding nearly five years ago. They now, April, 1901, live in Minneapolis, beloved by their neighbors and respected by all who know them.

William Willford was born at Big Lick, Hancock County, Ohio, March 3, 1837. He came to Minnesota Oct 10, 1854, and located at Richmond Prairie, Fillmore County. He married Mary J. Ward, May, 1859. Mr. Willford was assessor of Canton Township, Fillmore County, thirteen years, between 1859 and 1876. Was town clerk of the same from 1860 to 1884. He has also been notary public since January, 1875.

Samuel J. Prentiss was born in Vermont, March 21, 1836. He came to Minnesota July 13, 1856, from Galena, Ill., to La Crosse, Wis., on steamer City Belle. After close of navigation went to St. Paul, and worked in the machine shop of the firm of Frank Gilman, on Burbank Hill, and helped to put in the first power press for the Pioneer and Democrat in October, 1856. His present home is in La Crosse, Wis.

Mrs. Anne E. Drake, widow of C.S. Drake, was born in Ireland on November 1, 1836. She came to Minnesota with her parents in 1855, and located in Shieldsville, but moved to St. Paul the same year. Mrs. Drake is the daughter of Thomas O'Reily, whose first home in America was in Montreal, Canada. He came to Minnesota in 1852. The subject of this sketch, who was then Miss O'Reily, was married to C. S. Drake, April 6, 1866.

Mr. Drake was born in Columbia County, Pennsylvania; came to Minnesota in 1852. He was a compositor and worked on the daily papers in St. Paul for many years. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he enlisted in the First Minnesota Infantry, and took part in all the engagements of that famous regiment until he was wounded at Gettysburg. He was discharged April 24, 1864, and died June 12, 1892.

Mr. and Mrs. Drake had seven children born to them, three girls and four boys. Two of the sons were members of the Twelfth Minnesota Infantry, and took part in the Spanish American War.

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